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  • Author or Editor: James N. Moore x
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Seeds of 25 blackberry (Rubus spp.), five red raspberry (R. idaeus L.), and two black raspberry (R. occidentalis L.) populations that had been stored for 22 to 26 years were planted in the greenhouse to evaluate their germination. Germination ranged from 0% to 84% among all populations. Thorny and thorny × thornless blackberry populations had the highest average germination; most populations had >40% germination. Thornless blackberry populations ranged from 1% to 16% germination. The seeds of two of the five red raspberry populations did not germinate and none of the black raspberry seeds germinated.

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Yield and average berry weight were measured for first year fruiting (on semi-erect canes) and second year fruiting (erect canes) to compare harvest age effect for erect blackberries established from root cuttings. cultivars were `Cheyenne', `Choctaw', `Navaho' and `Shawnee' and 4 plantings were included in the comparison. One of the four plantings had an average yield of 27% more in the first year as compared to the second year. The other plantings had higher yields in the second year as compared to the first ranging up to a 100% increase. Yield was 23% higher for the second year when all plantings were averaged. Average yield increase by cultivar in the second year compared to the first was: 'Choctaw' 37%, 'Cheyenne' 27%, 'Navaho' 22% and 'Shawnee' 20%. Berry weight was not affected by harvest age except in one planting, where average weight was higher for first year fruiting.

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Cold hardiness was evaluated in twelve seedling populations of tetraploid blackberry, in 1988 and 1989. Seedling populations resulted from crosses made between nine parents of three different categories of cold hardiness. Viability testing of xylem, phloem, and bud tissues were conducted following exposure of tissues to a low temperature estimated to kill one-half of all tissues. Tissues were rated as alive if green and dead if any browning of tissue was seen.

Significant population effects (P<.05) were seen for xylem and bud survival in 1988 and for xylem, phloem, and bud survival in 1989. Results were similar for the two years, although there was a greater discrimination between populations for xylem and phloem survival in the second year. The four populations having `Darrow' as a parent consistently showed greater survival than the other eight lines. The six populations which had `Brison' as one parent showed consistently poor survival with the exception of one resulting from a cross of `Brison' × `Darrow'. This population showed consistently good hardiness, indicating that dominance effects may play a role in cold hardiness of blackberries.

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Cold hardiness was evaluated in twelve seedling populations of tetraploid blackberry, in 1988 and 1989. Seedling populations resulted from crosses made between nine parents of three different categories of cold hardiness. Viability testing of xylem, phloem, and bud tissues were conducted following exposure of tissues to a low temperature estimated to kill one-half of all tissues. Tissues were rated as alive if green and dead if any browning of tissue was seen.

Significant population effects (P<.05) were seen for xylem and bud survival in 1988 and for xylem, phloem, and bud survival in 1989. Results were similar for the two years, although there was a greater discrimination between populations for xylem and phloem survival in the second year. The four populations having `Darrow' as a parent consistently showed greater survival than the other eight lines. The six populations which had `Brison' as one parent showed consistently poor survival with the exception of one resulting from a cross of `Brison' × `Darrow'. This population showed consistently good hardiness, indicating that dominance effects may play a role in cold hardiness of blackberries.

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The southern highbush blueberry cultivars `Blueridge', `Cape Fear', `Georgiagem' and `O'Neal' were evaluated for their response to sawdust/woodchip mulch for five years at Clarksville, Arkansas on a Linker fine sandy loam soil. Mulched plants produced higher yields and larger plant volumes than non-mulched. Berry weight was similar for mulch treatment except for the first fruiting year. All cultivars responded to mulch, although `Blueridge' and 'Cape Fear' produced the higher yields. General response of these cultivars of southern highbush was similar to that of northern highbush in previous mulch studies in Arkansas.

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`Kiowa' is the eighth in a series of erect-growing, high-quality, productive blackberry cultivars developed in the breeding program of the Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station. Large fruit size is the most outstanding characteristic of `Kiowa', with fruit size usually 30% heavier than `Shawnee'. `Kiowa' has generally been less productive than `Shawnee' but similar in productivity to `Choctaw'. First picking of `Kiowa' is usually 3 days later than that of `Shawnee'. The harvest season for `Kiowa' is long, with fruit commonly ripening over a 6-week period. Fruits of `Kiowa' are firmer than `Shawnee' and `Choctaw'. Plants of `Kiowa' are not as vigorous or erect as are plants of `Shawnee', although row establishment has been good using either plants or root cuttings.

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