You are looking at 21 - 30 of 32 items for
- Author or Editor: J. Benton Storey x
Three-dimensional leaf and fruit distribution was studied in a 26-year-old `Success' pecan tree [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch]. The tree was typical of the trees in this orchard and typical of thousands of hectares of mature pecan trees growing in a crowded condition. There are fewer leaves and fruit in the lower and central canopy than in the rest of the tree. To obtain an adequate sample, measurements should be taken from branches arising at a height ≥4.75 m and from 1.9 m from the center of the tree trunk to the edge of the canopy around the trees. Fruit could be sampled from branches arising at ≥3.76 m from the ground and from 3.37 m from the center of the tree trunk to the edge of the canopy around the tree.
Preharvest germination (viviparity) can be a problem with nuts of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch]. Two southern-adapted cultivars (`Cherokee' and `Wichita') and one northern-adapted cultivar (`Johnson') were paternal parents in controlled crosses with the maternal parent `Wichita'. `Wichita' × `Johnson' seed took much longer to germinate than seed from either the `Wichita' × `Cherokee' cross or the `Wichita' self, therefore indicating that pollen source may influence germination characteristics.
Fall soil treatments of ZnEDTA and ZnSO4 at three increasing rates (32.2, 64.4 and 128.8 g. Zn/tree) and 1, 2 and 3 spring foliar sprays of NZN (0.35 g. Zn/tree/application) were tested to correct Zn deficiency in three year old `Earligrande' peach trees. All Zn carriers increased the Zn leaf content. Peach trees treated with three applications of NZN were equal to the medium or high rates of soil applied ZnEDTA or ZnSO4 respectively, in appearance, chlorophyll content and foliar Zn content. Three applications of NZN at 0.35 g. of Zn/tree (473 ml/378 gal H2O) gave excellent tree response and was cost effective.
`Cheyenne', `Mohawk', `Pawnee', and `Osage' grown in different locations in the United States were analyzed for fatty acid composition. The effect of heat units accumulated 12 weeks prior to shuck split were studied. Growing area affected the fatty acid profile for all cultivars. `Cheyenne' and `Mohawk' showed a positive correlation between heat units and oleic/linoleic acid ratios (r = 0.905 and r = 0.720 respectively), a positive correlation between heat units and oleic acid content (r = 0.863 and r = 0.773 respectively), and a negative correlation between heat units and linoleic acid content (r = -0.871 and r = -0.792 respectively). However, no correlation was obtained between heat units and the fatty acid profiles for `Osage' and `Pawnee'.
Evidence of professional competence is needed for those whose activities affect the well-being of the general public. Graduates of BS and MS programs in horticulture are not distinguishable from self styled individuals who assume the title of “Horticulturist” without earning it. Certification of horticultural graduates is the first step in gaining a recognition for the Horticultural Profession. ASHS has established a Certified Professional Horticultural Sub-Board of the American Registry of Certified Professionals in Agronomy, Crops and Soils (ARCPACS). Professional core requirements include courses horticultural crop management, pest management, soil science, plant physiology, botany, chemistry, and genetics. Supporting core courses include math, communication skills, and horticultural specialization courses. Applications from individual horticultural graduates will soon be accepted. Details of the curriculum, continuing education, ethics, and other eligibility requirements will be detailed.
`Stuart' pecans were harvested as soon as shucks would split in the fall of 1989 and 45 kg inshell samples were placed in 30 × 30 × 105 cm drying bins. The nuts were dried at air volumes of either 0, 1.27, 1.56, 1.84, or 2.12 m3/min down to 4% moisture. Air temperature in the drying bins was maintained at uniform 35°C with the exception of the 0 air volume treatment which was allowed to dry at room temperature. Four random samples of each treatment were held in frozen storage awaiting fatty acid analysis. Palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolinic fatty acids were separated in a 183 cm × 3 mm packed column using a 10% Silar 10C phase on a Gas Chrom QII, 100/120. The samples dried with a air volume of 1.27 m3/min retained a significantly higher oleic acid content than the 0 and 2.12 m3/min drying volumes. The 1.27 m3/min volume retained 64.55 % oleic acid compared with 61.37'% for the 0 velocity sample and 59.61% for 2.12 m3/min treatment. The more desirable oleic/linoleic ratio of 2.24 was found in the 1.27 m3/min sample compared to a 1.78 ratio in the 2.12 m3/min sample. Increased volume of air in the drying bins was thus deleterious to these samples because of the loss of monounsaturated fatty acid.
Annual variation in fruiting by pecan [Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] obtained from anecdotal records and state, district, county, and orchard data from Texas indicate exceptionally high synchronous fluctuations typically occurred every 34 years with a range of 2-7 years over the 66-year data base examined. Synchrony in fruit production was inversely related to the spatial distribution of pecans reflected in coefficients of variation ranging from about 60 at the state level to about 120 for two 10-ha orchards. These characteristics show that pecan exhibits roasting and that the species warrants further examination vis a vis interactions with nut feeders.
Analyses of stem cross sections of 97 pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] and 22 post oak (Quercus stellata Wangenh.) trees from seven sites showed tree rings were sensitive to the environment and were datable by tree, among trees within a site, among sites, and between species. Pecan had well-defined annual growth rings averaging from 1.25 to 3.36 mm in width and that varied synchronously among trees. Pecan had a mean sensitivity of about 0.3 compared to 0.4 for post oak, indicating a smaller but adequate response of pecan to reflect climatic variations and to use pecan tree rings in other dendrological studies.
Summer and fall irrigation treatments increased pecan yield, trunk diameter, and percent kernel over nonirrigated trees. Sticktights and viviparous nuts were reduced by late-season irrigation in a dry year (1984). All irrigation treatments increased pecan size; the most frequently irrigated plots had the largest pecans and least tree water stress as measured by a pressure bomb in 1984. The less water was applied in Sept, and Oct. 1984, the more sticktights resulted. Late-season water stress in all treatments indicated that water was needed just before shuck opening.
Rootstock resistance to soil-borne phytopathogenic fungi, such as Phymatotrichum omnivorum (Shear) Duggar, is an important factor in disease control. Measurement of natural rootstock resistance is often based on plant survival/mortality percentage, and /or growth data. Fungal colonization of host roots in disease screening experiments may not be uniform for many reasons, causing variability in host response. Quantification of fungal colonization is needed in order to better understand rootstock performance. Ergosterol, a structural sterol in cell membranes of fungi, is not found in higher plants, and can thus be a measure of fungal colonization. Ergosterol was extracted from roots of pecan seedlings artificially inoculated with P. omnivorum and grown in an environmental growth chamber. Analysis of extracts with HPLC revealed that seedlings which were killed in screening, or had low root performance ratings, had increased levels of ergosterol. Non-inoculated controls also contained Ergosterol. indicating contamination and possible competition by other fungi.