Structural differences in leaves of pecan [Carya illinoensis (Wang) K. Koch] of cultivars resistant and susceptible to the scab pathogen, Cladosporium caryigenum (Ell. et Lang) Gottwald com. nov (formerly designated Fusicladium effusum Wint.), were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. In immature leaf tissue, cultivar resistance was correlated with fewer peltate glandular trichomes, a greater frequency of collapsed trichomes, and abundant phenolic compounds in the palisade parenchyma and bundle sheath cells compared to susceptible cultivars. In mature, scab-resistant leaves of all cultivars, trichomes were collapsed and less numerous, phenolics were abundant, and cuticular and epidermal cell wall development was greater compared to that of immature leaves.
The morphology of pecan [Carya illinoensis (Wangenh C. Koch)] pollen from 4 cultivars was examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. Pollen was triporate, paraisopolar and suboblate, with a tectate and microechinate surface. The exine was thickened around pores. Pollen from the 4 cultivars was indistinguishable. Pollen germinated in vitro after 1 hr. Pollen tubes grew from 1 or 2 pores, with one germ tube becoming dominant. Pollen germination decreased dramatically after anther dehiscence. Less than 1% of the pollen germinated 5 days after collection.
Early pollen-stigma responses were observed microscopically in controlled pollinations of pecan [Carya illinoensis (Wangenh) C. Koch]. Receptive stigmatic surfaces have rounded, basally attached projecting papillae with an irregularly patterned, noncopious exudate. Polarly flattened pollen, characteristic of grains at anthesis, becomes rounded and hydrated by 1 hr after pollination. Pollen tube emergence is visible within 3 hr of pollination, and extensive pollen tube growth on the stigma is apparent after 8 to 12 hr. Tube growth generally occurs along the stigmatic surface and between adjacent cells. Stigmatic cells collapse after pollen hydration and germination, with collapse extensive 24 hr after pollination. By 48 hr after pollination, stigmatic cells are flattened, and pollen grains and emerged pollen tubes have contents discharged with a similar collapse.
Inflorescence and staminate flower development in pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wang.) K. Koch] were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Organogenesis was described from inception to pollen dehiscence. The order of organ initiation was: a single bract, rounded floral apex, 2 lateral bracteoles, and 3-7 stamens. The initiation and time when stages of floral differentiation occur were determined for 1 protandrous and 2 protogynous cultivars. The time of early inflorescence development and the initiation of floral primordia and bracts were similar in both cultivar types, occurring about 12 months prior to staminate maturity. However, the initiation time of later floral development stages was divergent. The floral stages in the protandrous cultivar up to anther lobing occurred during the previous growing season. In the protogynous cultivars, initiation of bracteoles, the floral apex, stamen primordia and anther lobing took place in the spring of their anthesis.
The occurrence and structure of abnormal outgrowths developed on leaves of sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] on sterile meristem plantlets maintained in culture tubes were described using light and scanning electron microscopy. The outgrowths or intumescences generally were wart-like, hemispherical forms or irregular, perpendicularly elevated protuberances that formed on both abaxial and adaxial surfaces. Their development resulted from a hypertrophy and hyperplasia of epidermal and mesophyll cells, which resulted in greatly enlarged, roughly isodiametric cells. Swelling and enlargement of stomata were evident; rupture of the epidermal surface did not occur.
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) transplants can be affected by an intermittent physiological problem manifested by loss of apical meristem function and retarded growth rates, referred to herein as apical meristem decline (AMD). Production losses associated with this condition can be substantial. Similar abnormal and arrested development of the shoot apex has been observed in a number of other species, and referred to as blindness, budlessness, toplessness, blindwood, and bud abortion. A developmental study using scanning electron microscopy was conducted in `Agriset' tomato during an occurrence of AMD to evaluate and compare normal and afflicted plants. The AMD condition was associated with cessation of leaf primordia development and lack of flower initiation. The shoot apex of plants with AMD remained vegetative compared to normal plants which at the same age had well-differentiated flower primordia. No evidence of abortion, die back, or necrosis of the shoot apex was observed. The effects of mineral nutrient additions on symptom development varied with year. In year 1, N fertilization reduced the incidence of both AMD and retarded bud growth (i.e., the percentage of normal plants increased from 29% to 97% with N applications). Preplant applications of P, alone or in conjunction with CaCO3 and trace elements, also ameliorated AMD. In year 2, AMD was observed only at very low levels, i.e., 4% or less, and mineral nutrition had no apparent effect on AMD or normal plant number.
Georgia plume (Elliottia racemosa Muhlenb. ex. Elliott) is a rare deciduous shrub or small tree. It has sustained severe loss of habitat and its range is now restricted to a limited number of sites in the state of Georgia. Tissue culture protocols have been developed as a means to propagate and conserve this threatened species using leaf explants induced on medium supplemented with 10 μm thidiazuron (TDZ) and 5 μm indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Bud-like clusters, elongated embryo-like protrusions, and shoot-like structures were produced from the leaf explants. Morphological and histological evaluations of cultures during induction and development were conducted using light microscopy of sectioned material and scanning electron micrography. Histology of explant tissues indicates that plant regeneration of Georgia plume occurs through a shoot organogenesis pathway that involves the formation of actively dividing meristematic regions originating in subepidermal cell layers that proliferate to form protuberances on the explant surface. Numerous well-formed shoot apical meristems with leaf primordia are produced, as well as fused shoot-like structures. Elongated, embryo-like structures had various degrees of shoot apex development. Evaluations of serial sections found that they lacked a defined root apex, and that basal portions were composed of parenchymatous files of cells with a broad point of attachment to the parent tissue. The lack of bipolarity and a root pole signifies that true somatic embryogenesis does not occur.
Pomegranate fruit is valued for its juice-containing arils and is consumed and marketed as whole fresh fruit, extracted arils, juice, syrup (grenadine), wine, teas, seed oil, and other products. Recent consumption has rapidly increased attributable in part to reported health benefits that include efficacy against coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, cancer, hypertension, and infectious diseases. Within commercial orchards, the size of fruits produced can be quite variable even with trees of the same genotype grown under similar cultivation practices. Although pomegranates have been cultivated since antiquity, fruit attributes, particularly those related to size, are poorly defined. In this study, compositional changes in pomegranate fruits of the Wonderful cultivar, including volume and weight, aril weight and number, pericarp weight, seed weight, and juice/pulp content, were evaluated in fruits of variable sizes. Correlations between fruit characteristics were determined, and factor analysis established fruit and aril indices. Results indicated that because fruit volume, fruit weight, and total aril weight are closely correlated, any of these characteristics can be used as an indicator of fruit size. The number of arils per fruit was highly correlated with fruit size with larger fruit containing greater numbers of arils. This is in contrast to individual average aril weight, which showed no significant relationship to fruit size. Crop production strategies aimed at increasing aril numbers may be a means for obtaining larger fruit in pomegranate.
Somatic embryogenic cultures of pecan (Carya illinoinensis) were induced on medium with either naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Percent embryogenesis, embryo development, and subsequent performance were assessed. Cultures induced on medium with NAA were more zygotic-like, with a higher frequency of embryos that had well-defined shoot apices. In contrast, cultures induced with 2,4-D exhibited more extensive callusing and more fused and/or abnormal embryos. Adjustment of the auxin used during induction may be a means of obtaining higher quality embryos, that have higher rates of conversion into plants.
Tissue cultures of pecan [Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] were initiated from embryo explants collected weekly from 12 weeks post-pollination until fruit maturity. Three cultures derived from immature embryos collected 14 weeks postpollination produced primary somatic embryos within 1 month following transfer from modified woody plant medium (WPM) with 2.0 mgliter−1 2,4-D and 0.25 mg liter−1 BA in the light to hormone-free medium in the dark. Scanning electron microscopy documented the development of secondary embryos, which followed a globular, heartshaped, and torpedo-stage developmental sequence. Chemical names used: (2,4-di-chlorophenoxy) acetic acid (2,4-D), N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purin-6-amine (BA), and 1H-indole-3-butanoic acid (IBA).