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  • Author or Editor: Harold F. Wilkins x
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Poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Wind. ex. Klotzsch cv. Gutbier V-14 Glory) plants were grown under conditions simulating commercial stock plant production to investigate the effects of NH4-N: NO3-N fertilizer ratios, foliar Ca sprays, medium-applied Ca, and medium-applied Mo on leaf edge burn (LEB) and cutting production. Leaf edge burn expression was nearly 100% greater with NH4-N: NO3-N fertilizer ratios of 1:2 or 2:1 than with NO3-N only. However, cutting production was 28% lower with NO3-N as the sole N source. There was little difference in either LEB or cutting production between the two NH4-N levels. Weekly Ca sprays at 500 mg·liter-1 were effective in reducing LEB, while medium-applied Ca as gypsum was ineffective. Foliar Ca sprays reduced both the number of LEB leaves (90%) and symptom severity of individual leaves. Spraying plants with tap water (Ca at 25 to 30 mg·liter-1) plus wetting agent had an intermediate effect. Medium-applied Mo was ineffective in reducing LEB, despite greatly increasing leaf Mo levels. The Ca concentration in chlorotic, marginal leaf tissue was significantly lower than the Ca concentration in green leaf margins. There was also a strong, negative correlation between the Ca concentration in young leaves at the susceptible growth stage and the incidence of LEB in various treatment groups. Supplemental applications of Ca and Mo did not consistently affect cutting production. Leaf edge burn appears to be a localized Ca deficiency due to inadequate Ca uptake and/or translocation to the numerous axillary shoots simultaneously developing on poinsettia stock plants.

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Abstract

Leaf emergence from bulblets of Lilium longiflorum Thunb. generated in vitro from bulb-scale explants incubated in the dark at either 25 or 30°C was enhanced by 3 stimuli: incubation at 4°C for 1 or more weeks after removal from culture; immersion in water at 45° for 30 minutes to 8 hours after removal from culture; or in vitro red-light irradiation. For maximum response, bulblets generated at 25° required longer treatments at either 45° or under red-light irradiation. On the other hand, bulblets generated in vitro at 30° responded least to incubation at 4°. Although all 3 environmental factors ended dormancy, variation in rates of leaf emergence and total percentage of bulblets with leaves at the end of the experiments suggested differences in the state of bulblet dormancy due to in vitro temperature and differences in the physiological action of the environmental stimuli promoting leaf emergence.

Open Access

The poinsettia [Euphorbia pulcherrima (Willd. ex. Klotzsch)] is a short-day plant (SDP) for floral initiation that will also initiate floral structures (cyathia) under long days (LD) after the apical meristem produces a cultivar-dependent number of nodes (long-day node number). Leaf removal, root restriction, and air layering failed to affect the long-day node number (LDNN) of the apical meristem. Repeated rooting of shoots, which resulted in the removal of nodes, did not affect the total number of nodes initiated by the apical meristem before floral initiation, although the number of nodes intact on the plant at the time of floral initiation was reduced. Reciprocal grafting of axillary buds of `Eckespoint Lilo' and `Gutbier V-14 Glory' plants did not affect the LDNN of the grafted meristem since the LDNN was the same as for nongrafted buds of the same cultivar. Further, grafting axillary buds from different positions along the main axis that differed in LDNN did not affect the LDNN of the grafted meristems. On the basis of these results, it was concluded that LD floral initiation in poinsettia is a function of the ontogenetic age of the meristem and that the LDNN represents a critical ontogenetic age for floral initiation to occur under LD.

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Exogenous foliar spray applications of gibberellic acid (GA3) applied at 7- or 14-day intervals providing 50 or 125 μg per plant inhibited long-day (LD) floral initiation in poinsettia [Euphorbia pulcherrima (Willd. ex. Klotzsch)]. Periodic application of GA3 resulted in an additional number of nodes being produced by the plant before floral initiation equivalent to the number of nodes over which GA3 was applied. Further, GA, application eliminated the nodal position dependence of the long-day node number (LDNN) of axillary meristems observed in control plants. It was concluded that GA3 application inhibited the inclusion of nodes into the LDNN count and thus inhibited ontogenetic aging of the meristem. Exogenous application of GA, also inhibited LD floral initiation, while application of GA4 had no effect. Application of GA7 delayed LD floral initiation, but plants did initiate cyathia by the termination of the experiment. All gibberellins increased the average internode lengths similarly. The gibberllin-biosynthesis inhibitors chlormequat and paclobutrazol had no effect on LD floral initiation when applied as single or multiple foliar sprays or as soil drenches, although heights and internode lengths were reduced by application of the inhibitors. The LDNN of plants grown at 31C was significantly higher than of plants grown at 16, 21, or 26C. All plants eventually initiated cyathia regardless of temperature. When plants were grown under a range of day/night temperatures, an increase in the LDNN occurred only when plants were grown at 31C during the day. Chemical names used: 2-chloroethyl-trimethyl-ammonium chloride (chlormequat); (+/-)-(R*,R*)-β -(4-chlorophenyl)methyl-α -(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1-H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol).

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Abstract

Up to 50% of bulblets generated in vitro at 30°C from bulbscale explants of Lilium longiflorum ‘Ace’ produced an elongated axis in the 14 weeks after removal from tissue culture and potting in vermiculite. None of the ‘Ace’ bulblets produced in vitro at 25° and none of the ‘Nellie White’ bulblets produced in vitro at either 25° or 30° formed an elongated axis. Increased length of time that ‘Ace’ bulbs were stored at 4° before explanting as well as immersing bulblets generated in vitro at 30° in water at 45° for 1 hour before potting increased the percentage of bulblets with an elongated axis. Axis elongation was not related to bulblet size or to position of scale used for explanting (inner vs. outer bulb scale). Exposing ‘Ace’ bulblets generated at 30° to 3 or more weeks at 4° reduced the percentage of bulblets with an elongated axis to zero. Treatment of chilled bulblets for 2 hours in water at 45° did not reverse the effect of cold.

Open Access