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  • Author or Editor: Gregory A. Lang x
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Abstract

Fruit-bearing olive (Olea europaea L.) shoots were exposed to more than 100 ethylene (C2H4) treatments to determine if C2H4-induced abscission varied between leaves and fruits in response to manipulation of treatment concentration, duration, and total amount of exogenous C2H4. Nearly three-quarters of the treatments induced greater fruit abscission than leaf abscission on a percentage basis. The potential for optimization of C2H4-induced fruit abscission relative to leaf abscission was examined by calculating the fruit-to-Ieaf (F:L) abscission ratio. Of the treatments inducing at least 75% fruit abscission, the dose range of 150 to 370 μmol C2H4 gave ratios up to 13.3; however, results were highly variable and closely dependent on the interaction of concentration and duration. Response surfaces were created to depict this interaction. Desirable levels of fruit abscission occurred at durations > 30 hr and concentrations > 2 to 3 μl·liter−1. However, excessive leaf abscission occurred at durations of 24 to 48 hr, depending on concentration. Acceptable F:L ratios were found for about 30% of the surface, with the highest ratios occurring for treatments of 3 to 5 μl·liter−1 for 28 to 34 hr.

Open Access

To study self- and cross-pollination effects on fruit development in southern highbush (mainly Vaccinium corymbosum L.) blueberries, `Sharpblue' plants were caged with honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) and other `Sharpblue' or `Gulfcoast' plants at anthesis. Ratios of pollinizer: fruiting flowers ranged from 2.1 to 4.5. Cross-pollination increased fruit size by ≈14% and seed count by 27% but did not influence fruit set. Overall, seed count decreased by 58% during the 30 days of harvest, but this did not directly affect fruit size. Seed count appeared to influence earliness of ripening as much as it influenced fruit size. Cross-pollination increased the harvest percentage of early-ripening fruits by ≈140% and of premium market fruits (those ≥ 0.75 g) by 13% and decreased the percentage of small fruits by 66%. Consequently, a 43% increase in premium early market crop value (nearly $5000/ha) resulted from optimizing `Sharpblue' cross-pollination.

Free access

Abstract

A nondestructive system for measuring volatile compounds, specifically ethylene, evolved from intact fruit of olive (Olea europaea L.) in the field is described. Polyethylene cans from 35-mm film cartridges are modified with a rubber septum for sampling. The lid is sealed around the fruit peduncle and remains in the field under all conditions. The can is removable to expose the fruit to normal conditions when sampling is not being done. Samples of the atmosphere inside the can are taken with a syringe for gas chromatographic analysis. Background ethylene evolution from the system is low. The system allows repeated monitoring of the same fruit over the duration of a season. Nineteen glues and sealants are evaluated for bonding, phytotoxicity, and ethylene evolution.

Open Access

Abstract

The possibility of using 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to detect ethephon (ET) in olive leaves has been examined. 31P-NMR spectroscopy can be used as a nondestructive technique (tissues excised but not extracted) with the unique attributes of monitoring ET hydrolysis internally and without radiochemicals. A characteristic spectral peak for the parent ET molecule was found 17-21 ppm (a measure of relative frequency, not concentration) downfield from the H3PO4 reference, and a nonreactive, minor contaminant spectral peak was found at 26-27 ppm. Absolute spectral peak location (“chemical shift”) is pH-dependent. The ET hydrolysis product, orthophosphate, produces a spectral peak at 2 to 3 ppm, which coincides with the broad spectral peak attributed to major endogenous phosphate compounds in leaves, such as inorganic phosphate. The lower limit of 31P-NMR detection of ET in solution was 10−3 m; however, spray applications of ET were not detectable in olive leaves unless concentrations of 5 × 10−2 m or more were used, which is far greater than current agricultural use levels for mechanical harvest of olive. Nevertheless, 31P-NMR spectroscopy was useful in following ET uptake and decomposition for more than 48 hr in olive leaves from xylem-fed shoots, and the resolution of the ET spectral peak into separate, adjoining peaks presents the potential to identify and quantify subcellular compartmentalization of ET according to pH-induced chemical shifts. Such knowledge would contribute to understanding long- and short-term in vivo decomposition of ET to ethylene. Chemical name used: (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon).

Open Access

Dye transport through vascular pathways was examined in tissues surrounding the graft union of second-leaf, field-grown trees of `Lapins'/Gisela 5 (`Gi 5') (dwarfing) and `Lapins'/'Colt' (nondwarfing). Excavated, intact trees were allowed to take up xylemmobile dye via transpiration for 6 h before sectioning the tree into scion, graft union, and rootstock tissue. `Lapins'/'Gi 5' had a significantly larger stem cross-sectional area in the central graft union than did `Lapins'/'Colt'. Per unit cross section, dye transport of both `Lapins'/'Gi 5' and `Lapins'/'Colt' was significantly less in the graft union than in rootstock sections, with still less transported to scion tissues in `Lapins'/'Gi 5'. `Lapins'/'Gi 5' had a tendency to produce vascular elements oriented obliquely to the longitudinal axis of the tree. Dye was distributed more uniformly axially and radially across the graft union in `Lapins'/'Colt' than in `Lapins'/'Gi 5', with an apparent accumulation of dye in `Lapins'/'Gi 5' graft union. Xylem vessel diameters and vessel hydraulic diameters (VDh) were smaller overall in `Lapins'/'Gi 5' than in `Lapins'/'Colt'; however, graft unions in both had smaller VDh than did rootstock sections. These observations suggest reduced transport efficiency of xylem vessels in the graft union in `Lapins'/'Gi 5' may be due to smaller vessels, vascular abnormalities and/or increased amounts of callus and parenchyma tissue.

Free access

Most sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars grown commercially in the Pacific Northwestern states of the United States are susceptible to powdery mildew, caused by the fungus Podosphaera clandestina (Wall.:Fr.) Lev. The disease is prevalent in the irrigated arid region east of the Cascade Mountains in Washington State. Little is known about genetic resistance to powdery mildew in sweet cherry, although a selection (PMR-1) was identified at Washington State Univ.'s Irrigated Agriculture Research and Extension Center that exhibits apparent foliar immunity to the disease. The objective of this research was to determine the inheritance of powdery mildew resistance from PMR-1. Reciprocal crosses were made between PMR-1 and three high-quality, widely-grown susceptible cultivars (`Bing', `Rainier', and `Van'). Resultant progenies were screened for reaction to powdery mildew colonization using a laboratory leaf disk assay. Assay results were verified by natural spread of powdery mildew among the progeny in a greenhouse and later by placing them among infected trees in a cherry orchard. Segregation within the progenies for powdery mildew reaction fit a 1 resistant: 1 susceptible segregation ratio (P ≤ 0.05), indicating that resistance to powdery mildew derived from PMR-1 was conferred by a single gene.

Free access

A personal computer-based method was compared with standard visual assessment for quantifying colonization of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) leaves by powdery mildew (PM) caused by Podosphaera clandestina (Wallr.:Fr.) Lev. Leaf disks from 14 cultivars were rated for PM severity (percentage of leaf area colonized) by three methods: 1) visual assessment; 2) digital image analysis; and 3) digital image analysis after painting PM colonies on the leaf disk. The third technique, in which PM colonies on each leaf disk were observed using a dissecting microscope and subsequently covered with white enamel paint, provided a standard for comparison of the first two methods. A digital image file for each leaf disk was created using a digital flatbed scanner. Image analysis was performed with a commercially available software package, which did not adequately detect slight differences in color between PM and sweet cherry leaf tissue. Consequently, two replicated experiments revealed a low correlation between PM image analysis and painted PM image analysis (r2 = 0.66 and 0.46, P ≤ 0.0001), whereas visual assessment was highly correlated with painted PM image analysis (r2 = 0.88 and 0.95, P ≤ 0.0001). Rank orders of the 14 cultivars differed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) when PM image analysis and painted PM image analysis were compared; however, rankings by visual assessment were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from those by painted PM image analysis. Thus, standard visual assessment is an accurate method for estimating disease severity in a leaf disk resistance assay for sweet cherry PM.

Free access

Prohexadione-Ca (P-Ca) and ethephon (ETH) were evaluated as potential inhibitors of growth and promoters of early flowering for high density orchard management of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) trees on vigorous rootstocks. Single applications (P-Ca at 125 to 250 mg·L-1 active ingredient (a.i.) or ETH at 175 to 200 mg·L-1 a.i.) to young, nonfruiting sweet cherry trees produced short-term, generally transient reductions in terminal shoot elongation, and did not stimulate flower bud formation. Tank-mix applications (P-Ca + ETH) usually produced a stronger, possibly synergistic, reduction in shoot growth rate. Single tank-mix applications either increased subsequent flower bud density on previous season shoots or had no effect; when a second application was made three weeks later to the same trees, subsequent flower bud density on previous season shoots and spurs on older wood increased ≈3-fold over untreated trees. Yield efficiency (g·cm2 trunk cross-sectional area) also increased nearly 3-fold. Chemical names used: (2-chloroethyl) phosphonic acid (ethephon); calcium 3-oxido-4-propionyl-5-oxo-3-cyclohexene carboxylate (prohexadione-Ca); polyoxyethylene polypropoxypropanol, dihydroxypropane, 2-butoxyethanol (Regulaid); aliphatic polycarboxylate, calcium (Tri-Fol).

Free access

To examine the effect of timing and severity of summer pruning on flower bud initiation and vegetative growth, 4-year-old `Bing' cherry trees (Prunus avium L.) were pruned at 31, 34, 37, 38, or 45 days after full bloom (DAFB) with heading cuts 20 cm from the base of current-season lateral shoot growth, or at 38 DAFB by heading current-season lateral shoot growth at 15, 20, 25, or 30 cm from the base of the shoot. The influence of heading cut position between nodes also was examined by cutting at a point (≈20 cm from the shoot base) just above or below a node, or in the middle of an internode. Summer pruning influenced the number of both flower buds and lateral shoots subsequently formed on the shoots. All of the timings and pruning lengths significantly increased the number of both flower buds and lateral shoots, but differences between pruning times were not significant. There was significantly less regrowth when shoots were pruned just below a node or in the center of an internode, rather than just above a node, suggesting that the length of the remaining stub may inhibit regrowth somewhat. The coefficient of determination (r 2) between flower bud number and regrowth ranged from -0.34 to -0.45. In young high-density sweet cherry plantings, summer pruning may be useful for increasing flower bud formation on current-season shoots. The time of pruning, length of the shoots after pruning, and location of the pruning cut can influence subsequent flower bud formation and vegetative regrowth.

Free access

Most sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars grown commercially in the Pacific Northwest U.S. are susceptible to powdery mildew caused by the fungus Podosphaera clandestina (Wall.:Fr.) Lev. The disease is prevalent in the irrigated arid region east of the Cascade Mountains in Washington State. Little is known about genetic resistance to powdery mildew in sweet cherry, although a selection (`PMR-1') was identified at the Washington State Unive. Irrigated Agriculture Research and Extension Center that exhibits apparent foliar immunity to the disease. The objective of this research was to characterize the inheritance of powdery mildew resistance from `PMR-1'. Reciprocal crosses between `PMR-1' and three high-quality, widely-grown susceptible cultivars (`Bing', `Rainier', and ëVaní) were made to generate segregating progenies for determining the mode of inheritance of `PMR-1' resistance. Progenies were screened for susceptibility to powdery mildew colonization using a laboratory leaf disk assay. Assay results were verified by natural spread of powdery mildew among the progeny seedlings in a greenhouse and later by placement among infected trees in a cherry orchard. Progenies from these crosses were not significantly different (P > 0.05) when tested for a 1:1 resistant to susceptible segregation ratio, indicating that `PMR-1' resistance is conferred by a single gene, which we propose to designate as PMR-1.

Free access