Limiting irrigation to increase fruit quality as well as conserve limited water resources is of increasing importance. We examined the links of aboveground growth and physiology to root growth and distribution under cultural practices associated with restricted irrigation and mulching in an apple (‘Gala/M.9’; Malus ×domestica Borkh.) orchard in a semiarid climate. Trees were either mulched to maintain a 10-cm depth or left unmulched. After orchard establishment, half the trees (partially irrigated) received daily drip irrigation only sufficient to meet 50% of daily evapotranspiration for 45 days before fruit harvest using one emitter per tree. The other trees continued to receive 100% irrigation using two emitters. Over three growing seasons, fruit yield was strongly affected in 2 of 3 years by partial irrigation if trees were unmulched but not if mulched. Fruit size and other quality parameters were minimally affected by partial irrigation. Total fine root length in fully irrigated trees was nearly double that of partially irrigated trees. Our results suggest that increases in soil moisture associated with mulching enabled mulched apple trees to tolerate deficit irrigation with minimal consequences for production and quality of apples, but with an overall less extensive and smaller root system.
David M. Eissenstat, Denise Neilsen, Gerry H. Neilsen and Thomas S. Adams
Gerry H. Neilsen, Denise Neilsen, Frank Kappel, Peter Toivonen and Linda Herbert
Cristalina and Skeena sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.) on Gisela 6 (Prunus cerasus × Prunus canescens) rootstock were maintained for the first four growing seasons in a randomized, replicated split-split plot experimental design with two main plot irrigation frequency treatments, the two cultivars as subplots and three soil management subsubplot treatments. The same amount of irrigation water was applied through four drip emitters per tree at either high (I1, four times daily) or low frequency (I2, once every second day) beginning in the second year. Three different soil management treatments were established the year of planting and included: 1) NK fertigation with a herbicide strip (control), or additionally; 2) maintenance of a 10-cm thick bark mulch over the herbicide strip; and 3) annual fertigation of 20 g phosphorus (P) per tree per year immediately after bloom. I1 irrigation increased soil moisture (0- to 20-cm depth) throughout each growing season. The I1 irrigation resulted in higher leaf and fruit concentrations of the immobile nutrients P and potassium (K) and larger trunk cross-sectional area than I2 trees. I1 irrigation, in general, did not affect initial yield or fruit size. Fruit from I2 irrigation had higher soluble solids concentration (SSC), color, and total phenolic concentration at harvest in 2008 and lower titratable acidity (TA), firmness, and stem pull force suggesting an acceleration of fruit maturity. When compared with the control soil management treatment, P fertigation resulted in leaves and fruit with higher P concentrations, a higher 2008 crop yield, and a delay in 2008 crop maturity as indicated by lower harvest color and SSC and higher stem pull force. Mulch application, relative to control treatments, resulted in trees with higher vigor (but only with I1 irrigation) and leaf K concentration and had few effects on initial fruit yield or quality. There were important differences in cultivar responses to treatments. ‘Cristalina’ vigor was lower than ‘Skeena’ whose fruit had lower firmness and pedicel retention than ‘Cristalina’.
Esmaeil Fallahi, Denise Neilsen, Gerry H. Neilsen, Bahar Fallahi and Bahman Shafii
Use of crop evapotranspiration (ETc), when a precise crop coefficient value (Kc) is used, provides a reliable tool (irrigation scheduling) for determination of water requirement. In this process, Kc should be modified by percentage of ground shade (GS) and tree canopy maturity (M). In an experiment in Idaho with ET-based irrigation scheduling, each tree with a full microjet sprinkler system received an average of 6461.7 L (994 mm), whereas each one with a full drip system used 3996 L (614.1 mm) of irrigation water. In general, deficit drip irrigation was shown to initially increase yield as a result of induction of stress and the production of a higher number of fruit spurs. However, production declined if the extreme water deficiency was repeatedly applied to the trees over several years. Using a microjet sprinkler system, a partial root zone drying regime reduced fruit size but slightly improved fruit color. Application of water at 65% full drip rate, applied on both sides of the tree row (DD), reduced fruit size. However, when the 65% of full drip rate was applied to only one of the alternating sides of the tree every other week (PRD), fruit size was larger than those with DD treatment.
David M. Eissenstat, Denise Neilsen, Alan N. Lakso, David R. Smart, Taryn L. Bauerle, Louise H. Comas and Gerry H. Neilsen
Growers plan most of their horticultural activities around certain shoot phenological stages, such as bloom, veraison, and harvest. Timing of root growth in relation to these stages of the shoot is of interest in fertilization scheduling and in understanding carbon allocation demands of the root system. With the recent use of minirhizotron root observation tubes, a much greater understanding of patterns of root growth has been made possible. In Fredonia, N.Y., 5 years of root investigation in `Concord' grape indicate considerable variability in timing of root flushes. Root flushes could occur any time between bloom and veraison, but were generally not observed after harvest. Wine grapes in the Napa Valley exhibited similar patterns. In apple, root flushes may occur at bloom, but often not after harvest. Consequently, we rarely observed the bimodal distribution of root flushes commonly depicted in textbooks for apple and grape. Our data suggest that general perceptions of the timing of root growth may be in error.