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  • Author or Editor: G.H. Neilsen x
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Abstract

‘Macspur McIntosh’ and ‘Red Chief Delicious’ apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) on M.7a rootstock were subjected to treatments involving all combinations of two types of irrigation water (well-water or municipal effluent) from 1983, the year of planting, through 1987 and three rates of N fertilization (0, 200, 400 g NH4NO3/tree per year), from 1984 through 1987. The zero N treatment was increased to 100 g NH4NO3/tree per year in 1986 due to low vigor of these trees. Effluent irrigation increased leaf N, P, and K concentration in 4 of 5 years for ‘McIntosh’, while leaf N, P, and K increased in 1, 4, and 2 years, respectively, for ‘Delicious’. Effluent irrigation increased trunk diameter increment in all years and fruit number and yield in 1985-86 for both cultivars. No major horticultural limitations to the use of effluent irrigation were observed. Nitrogen fertilization increased leaf N in 3 years for ‘McIntosh’ and 2 years for ‘Delicious’, while leaf P and K were decreased at the highest N rate in 2 years for each cultivar. Nitrogen fertilization did not increase trunk diameter and increased fruit number and yield only in 1986 after 3 years of a zero N treatment. The results implied a role for P in the establishment and early growth and yield of young apple trees.

Open Access

Apple seedling height after 7 weeks of growth in greenhouse pots was compared with total first year shoot growth of `McIntosh' or `Delicious' apple trees [Malus domestica (Borkh.)] on M.26 rootstock for eight orchards and five soil treatments. The apple trees were replanted in old orchard sites with the same treatments applied in the planting hole as were tested in the greenhouse. The pot test successfully predicted treatments that increased first year shoot growth in 23 of 30 opportunities. However, a less precise relationship (R2 = 0.38) existed between total first year shoot growth (Y) of `Summerland Red McIntosh' on M.26 rootstock and seedling height (X).

Free access

Four green apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars, `Granny Smith', `Mutsu', `Newtown', and `Shamrock', were subjected to a factorial experiment of two rates of nitrogen fertilization and three concentrations of foliar urea sprays for 4 years. The higher rate of N (160 kg N/ha) had no effect on ground color or fruit quality relative to the lower rate of 80 kg N/ha. Urea sprays enhanced green pigmentation in `Granny Smith' and `Newtown' at harvest and retarded yellowing of fruit in all cultivars during air storage at 0C. Response was similar for urea at 0.5% and 1%, and urea sprays did not adversely affect quality. Urea sprays increased fruit N by 23% and 47% for the 0.5% and 1% concentrations, respectively.

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Newly planted `Jonagold' and `McIntosh' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) on M.26 fertigated with Ca(N03)2 showed increased early tree vigor and leaf Ca concentration but decreased leaf Mg and Mn compared to trees fertigated with urea or NH4N03. Fertigation with P increased early tree vigor, leaf and fruit P concentration, and decreased leaf Mn in the first year relative to a single planting hole application of granular P. Increased fruit Ca concentration in `Jonagold' in one year was associated with the use of Ca(N03)2 and fertigation of P. Fruit quality was generally unaffected by the experimental treatments.

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Tree fruit growers use chemical and mechanical thinning techniques in an attempt to maintain regular annual flower production and maximum repeatable yields of varieties susceptible to biennial bearing. If the percentage of floral buds an apple tree could produce without causing yield depression in subsequent years was known, it would be possible to better manage crop-thinning regimes. This study proposes that thinning is a partial transfer of potential flower buds from one year to the next year and estimates the maximum repeatable sequence of flower buds without biennial bearing. The conceptual framework is tested on a 50-year simulation with 0% to 100% transfer of thinned flower buds. Results indicate that the maximum repeatable sequence of flower buds rises sharply when the final years of the orchard approach and declines when the percent transfer of thinned buds is near 0%.

Free access