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A. Shiferaw, M.W. Smith, R.D. Eikenbary and Don C. Arnold

Perennial legumes ground covers were evaluated in pecan (Carya illinoinensis) orchards to supply nitrogen and increase beneficial arthropods. Ground covers were `Kenland' red clover (Trifolium pratense), `Louisiana S-1' white clover (Trifolium repens), a mixture of these two legumes, or bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), each in 5 ha plots. Nitrogen was applied at 0-200 kg·ha-1 N in 50 kg intervals to bermuda grass plots, and was omitted on the legumes. Aphids feeding on the legumes attracted lady beetles; however, lady beetle populations in the tree canopies were not affected by ground cover treatment. The most abundant lady beetle species in legumes were Coleomegilla maculata lengi (77%) and Coccinella septempunctata (13%); whereas, dominant species in tree canopies were Coleomegilla maculata lengi (33%). Olla v-nigrum (20%). Cycloneda munda (18%) and Coccinella septempunctata (15%). Several other beneficial arthropods were sampled in legumes and tree canopies. Aphid populations feeding on pecans were low (peak population ≈ 2 aphids/leaf), and not affected by ground cover treatment. Legumes supplied the equivalent of applying 68-156 kg·ha-1 N.

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Mark A. Walker, Dale M. Smith, K. Peter Pauls and Bryan D. McKersie

The chilling tolerance of commercial Lycopersicon esculentum cultivars (H2653, H722), Solanum lycopersicoides, an F1 hybrid of S. lycopersicoides × Sub-Arctic Maxi, and 25 BC2F2 lines of L. hirsutum × H722 (backcrossed twice to H722) was evaluated using a chlorophyll fluorescence assay. The ratio of the initial to the peak fluorescence (Fo: Fp) measured from fully expanded leaves was chosen as an indicator of plant health. Chilling induced an increase in Fo: Fp that was correlated with the sensitivity of the plant to low-temperature stress. Values of Fo: Fp remained low for cold-treated S. lycopersicoides and the F1 hybrid, which showed few symptoms of chilling-related damage, whereas the commercial cultivars, which were essentially intolerant to low temperatures, had large increases in Fo: Fp. A full range of Fo: Fp values was measured in the 25 BC2F2 lines, indicating that some chilling tolerance from the L. hirsutum parent was expressed by plants in these populations.

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C.J. Coyne, D.C. Smith, S.A. Mehlenbacher, K.B. Johnson and J.N. Pinkerton

Resistant cultivars are a promising disease control method for eastern filbert blight, which is devastating hazelnut production in Oregon. In 1990, two studies were begun to evaluate the relative resistance of European hazelnut (Coyhls avellana) genotypes to the causal fungus, Anisogramma anomala. A randomized block design of 40 genotypes was planted using inoculated trees planted in the borders as the disease source. The first- and second-year disease incidence (percent) were compared to the published disease incidence (percent) based on exposing potted trees of 44 genotypes to high doses of inoculum. Disease incidence was significantly correlated between the two studies in 1991 (r =0.41, P = 0.02) and in 1992 (r =0.64, P = 0.001; rs = 0.35, 0.025 < P < 0.050). Three genotypes, however, showed no disease in the field, but they had disease in >70% of the potted tree study. A plot of disease incidence in the field planting indicates that the inoculum was present throughout the blocks.

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A. Shiferaw, M.W. Smith, R.D. Eikenbary and Don C. Arnold

Perennial legume ground covers were evaluated to supply N and increase beneficial arthropod densities in pecan orchards. Treatments were pure stands and a mixture of `Kenland' red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and `Louisiana S-l' white clover (Trifolium repense L.). The control plot was a grass sod. Nitrogen was applied at 0 to 200 kg·ha–1 in 50-kg intervals to the trees in the grass plots, but no N was applied to the legume plots. Aphids and beneficial arthropods were monitored in legumes and pecan canopies. Beneficial arthropods monitored were Coccinellidae, Chrysopidae, Nabis, Syrphid, and spiders. The most abundant beneficial arthropods were spiders, Coccinellidae, Chrysopidae, and Nabis respectively. In pecan canopies, spiders, Coccinellidae, Chrysopidae were the most abundant. The legumes supplied ≤156 kg N/ha to the pecan trees.

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J.A. Anchondo, M.M. Wall, V.P. Gutschick and D.W. Smith

Pigment and micronutrient concentrations of New Mexico 6-4 and NuMex R Naky chile pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivars as affected by low Fe levels were studied under soilless culture. A custom-designed, balanced nutrient solution (total concentration <2 mm) was continuously recirculated to the plants potted in acid-washed sand (pot volume 15.6 L). Each set of plants from each cultivar received iron concentrations at 1, 3, 10, and 30 μm Fe as Fe-EDDHA. The pigments of leaves, green fruit, and red fruit were extracted with acetone and measured with a spectrophotometer. Surface color of green and red fruit was measured with a chromameter. Total concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, P, and K of leaf blades and red fruit were measured by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP). Ferrous iron in leaf blades, and NO3-N in petioles also were determined. Iron nutrition level affected total leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid content at early season, and the level of these pigments in green fruit at second harvest. No differences in extractable or surface color of red fruit were found among iron treatments in the nutrient solution, despite variations in red fruit iron content, total foliar iron, and foliar ferrous iron. Higher levels of iron in the nutrient solution increased both ferrous and total iron of the leaves, but depressed foliar Cu and P. High iron supply also increased fruit iron, and decreased fruit Cu content. High iron levels in the nutrient solution were associated with higher concentrations of leaf pigments at early season and higher pigment concentration in green fruit.

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J.A. Anchondo, M.M. Wall, V.P. Gutschick and D.W. Smith

Growth and yield responses of `New Mexico 6-4' and `NuMex R Naky' chile pepper [Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum (Longum Group)] to four Fe levels were studied under sand culture. A balanced nutrient solution (total nutrient concentration <2 mmol·L-1) was recirculated continuously to plants potted in acid-washed sand from the seedling stage to red fruit harvest. Plants received 1, 3, 10 or 30 μm Fe as ferric ethylenediamine di-(o-hydroxyphenyl-acetate). Plant growth was determined by leaf area, specific leaf area [(SLA), leaf area per unit dry weight of leaves], instantaneous leaf photosynthetic rates, and dry matter partitioning. Low Fe (1 or 3 μm Fe) in the nutrient solution was associated with lower relative growth rates (RGR), increased SLA, and higher root to shoot ratios (3 μm Fe plants only) at final harvest. High Fe levels (10 or 30 μm Fe) in the nutrient solution were associated with an increased yield of red fruit and total plant dry matter. RGR of low-Fe young chile plants was reduced before any chlorotic symptoms appeared.

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F. Morin, J.A. Fortin, C. Hamel, R. L. Granger and D. L. Smith

A 12-week greenhouse experiment was undertaken to test the efficiency of inoculation of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on four apple (Malus domestica Borkh) rootstock cultivars: M.26, Ottawa 3 (Ott.3), P.16, and P.22. The plants were grown in soil from an apple rootstock nursery, containing high levels of extractable P (644 kg Bray/1 ha-1). Inoculation treatments were Glomus aggregatum Shenck and Smith emend. Koske, G. intraradix Shenck and Smith, and two isolates of G. versiforme (Karsten) Berch, one originally from California (CAL) and the other one from Oregon (OR). Mycorrhizal plants were taller, produced more biomass, and had a higher leaf P concentration than the uninoculated control plants. Mycorrhizal inoculation also significantly increased the leaf surface area of `M.26' and `Ott.3' compared to the control. Glomus versiforme(CAL)-inoculated plants generally had the best nutrient balance, the greatest final height and shoot biomass, and produced an extensive hyphal network. All the mycorrhizal plants had similar percentages of root colonization, but the size of the external hyphal network varied with fungal species. Glomus versiforme(OR) had a larger extramatrical phase than G. aggregatum and G. intraradix. Mycorrhizal efficiency was associated with a larger external hyphal network, but showed no relation with internal colonization. Despite the high P fertility of the soil used, growth enhancement due to mycorrhizal inoculation was attributed to improved P nutrition.

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C. Hamel, F. Morin, A. Fortin, R.L. Granger and D.L. Smith

Herbicides are increasingly used in orchards. Since apple trees strongly depend on mycorrhizae, the effects of three commonly used herbicides on the host plant and endophyte were examined. Symbiosis between tissue-cultured P16 apple rootstocks and Glomus versiforme (Karsten) Berch was established under greenhouse conditions. Simazine (1, 2, 10, and 20 μg a.i./g), dichlobenil (1, 5, 10, and 25 μg a.i./g), paraquat (0.5, 1, 10, and 100 μg a.i./g), or water was applied to mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants as a soil drench. The response of mycorrhizal plants to herbicide was greater, and the relative elongation rate was more sharply reduced in mycorrhizal (76%) than in nonmycorrhizal plants (33%). Six weeks after herbicide application, dry mass reduction due to herbicides was similar (39% and 36%) for mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plant shoots, respectively, while root dry mass reduction was larger for mycorrhizal (63%) than nonmycorrhizal plants (46%). None of the herbicide treatments affected root colonization. However, an in vitro hyphal elongation test with G. intraradices Schenck & Smith and herbicide-amended (0, 1, 10, 100, and 1000 μg a.i./g) gellan gum solidified water showed that either dichlobenil or paraquat, even at the lowest concentrations, could significantly reduce hyphal elongation. Simazine did not affect hyphal elongation in vitro, a result suggesting that improved absorption capacity of mycorrhizae explains, at least in part, the increased phytotoxicity of some herbicides. It was found that plant mortality was higher among mycorrhizal than nonmycorrhizal apple trees for all herbicide treatments. The increased CO2 assimilation rates of dichlobenil-treated mycorrhizal plants contrasted with the decreased rates of control plants measured 1 week after dichlobenil treatment. This indicates a physiological interaction between mycorrhizal colonization and dichlobenil in the toxic response of apple plants. Chemical names used: 2-chloro-4,6-bis-ethylamino-s-triazine (simazine), 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (dichlobenil), 1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'bipyridinium (paraquat).

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J.G. Robb, J.A. Smith, R.G. Wilson and C.D. Yonts

The Paperpot system provides a relatively flexible approach to commercial transplanting of crops. Around the world, most of the research and application of this system has been on sugar beets. Compared to traditional hand-transplanted, field-grown, bare-root onions, there are several potential advantages of the Paperpot system, including reduced labor requirements, accuracy of placement, and fewer imported insect and disease problems. Comparison of three transplanters—carousel, BST, and chain-type—indicated the chain-type transplanter had lower labor inputs and a higher transplanting capacity than the other models. The BST transplanter was capable of placing 65% of the plants within a 3- to 5-inch plant spacing. The chain-type and carousel deposited 36% and 14%, respectively, within this same spacing. Yield was higher when onions were transplanted with the BST machine. This was attributed to the more-accurate placement of the onion plants. A four-row BST transplanter was capable of transplanting 0.4 acres/h of onions in field-scale trials.

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Kim S. Lewers, Patricia R. Castro, John M. Enns, Stan C. Hokanson, Gene J. Galletta, David T. Handley, Andrew R. Jamieson, Michael J. Newell, Jayesh B. Samtani, Roy D. Flanagan, Barbara J. Smith, John C. Snyder, John G. Strang, Shawn R. Wright and Courtney A. Weber