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  • Author or Editor: D. W. Greene x
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Abstract

The influence of Mailing (M)26, M9, M27 rootstocks and stempiece/rootstock combinations M9/Malling-Merton (MM)106, M9/MM111, M27/MM106, and M27/MM111 on growth, leaf nutrition, and fruit quality of ‘Empire’ apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) was evaluated. After 8 growing seasons, height and spread of trees on M26, M9/MM106, M9/MM11, M27/MM106, and M27/MM111 were similiar and were greater than those of trees on M9 and M27. Mn concentration in leaves from trees on M27 was higher than that of leaves from trees on other rootstock and stempiece/rootstock combinations. Production of trees on M26, M9/MM106, and M27/MM106 was greater than that on M9/MM111, M9, and M27. When fruitfulness was related to trunk area, trees on the various rootstock and stempiece/rootstock combinations did not differ in production efficiency. Effect of rootstock or stempiece/rootstock on fruit size was inconsistent. Fruit from trees on M27/MM111 entered in to their climacteric later than those from trees on M26 and M 27 for 2 years and from trees on M9 and M9/MM106 for 1 year, but the delay was small. No fruit flesh firmness differences were detectable. Soluble solids content of fruit from trees on M27 was higher than that of fruit on M26, M9/MM111, and M27/MM111. Senescent breakdown was more prevelant in fruit from trees on M26 than on M9, M27, M9/MM111, and M27/MM111.

Open Access

Cultivar and planting site are two factors that often receive minimal attention, but can have a significant impact on the quality of apple (Malus ×domestica) produced. A regional project, NE-183 The Multidisciplinary Evaluation of New Apple Cultivars, was initiated in 1995 to systematically evaluate 20 newer apple cultivars on Malling.9 (M.9) rootstock across 19 sites in North America. This paper describes the effect of cultivar and site on fruit quality and sensory attributes at a number of the planting sites for the 1998 through 2000 growing seasons. Fruit quality attributes measured included fruit weight, length: diameter ratio, soluble solids concentration (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), flesh firmness, red overcolor, and russet. Fruit sensory characteristics rated included crispness, sweetness, and juiciness, based on a unipolar intensity scale (where 1 = least and 5 = most), and acidity, flavor, attractiveness, and desirability based on a bipolar hedonic scale (where 1 = dislike and 5 = like extremely). All fruit quality and sensory variables measured were affected by cultivar. The two-way interaction of cultivar and planting site was significant for all response variables except SSC, TA, russet, crispness, and sweetness ratings. The SSC: TA ratio was strongly correlated with sweetness and acidity sensory rating, but was weakly correlated with flavor rating. The results demonstrate that no one cultivar is ideally suited for all planting sites and no planting site is ideal for maximizing the quality of all apple cultivars.

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