Search Results

You are looking at 21 - 29 of 29 items for

  • Author or Editor: D. E. Johnson x
Clear All Modify Search

Golf facilities require a large area and consume energy to operate. As such, golf facilities have the potential to influence ecosystems and contribute to national and regional energy demands. The objective of this study was to document the land-use and energy practices of US golf facilities in 2021 and to determine if changes have occurred since 2005. A survey was distributed via e-mail to 13,938 US golf facilities, with 1861 responding. From 2005 to 2021, the projected acres of maintained turfgrass declined by 14.2%, whereas the median maintained turfgrass acreage declined by 3.0% indicating the decline in projected acres was likely a result of facility closures. In 2021, water features, turfgrass, and natural areas accounted for 92% of the total projected facility acres. More golf facilities used cleaner energy sources, such as natural gas and solar-electric, and fewer golf facilities used gasoline and diesel in 2021 than in 2005. The percentage of golf facilities at which behavioral changes were implemented to decrease energy use declined but design changes increased from 2005 to 2021. Golf facilities became more land and energy efficient from 2005 to 2021 by reducing the acreage of maintained turfgrass and increasing the use of clean energy sources, but room for improvement still exists in human behaviors that affect energy use.

Open Access

Abstract

Experiments were conducted to evaluate precision planting of single uncoated and spherically (clay) coated single seeds at 2 (uncoated only), 3, 4, 6, and 12 inches in the row. Three planters were used and compared to the conventional Planet Junior at accepted seeding rates. Sprinklers were compared with furrow irrigation. Seed emergence was superior with sprinkler irrigation. Coated seed and 6-inch spacing was not satisfactory with furrow irrigation, but was considered comparable to commercial stands with the sprinkler method (87.5% stand). In planting to a stand with a single seed every 12 inches (thus eliminating the thinning requirement), 84.4% of the desired stand was obtained with uncoated seed and sprinklers. Commercial stands most often range from 80 to 90% of the theoretical 12-inch spacing. Theoretical machine thinning of 3-inch plantings resulted in 8.6 single plants/10 ft of row indicating promise for this innovation.

Open Access

Abstract

This study was designed to determine the effect of pest control intensity on net returns in multiple cropping systems. The study is tempered with an evaluation of risk. The cropping system encompasses: turnip greens (Brassica rapa L.) for processing, field corn (Zea mays L.), and southern peas [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ssp. unguiculata] for processing. Within the ranges of pest control intensities studied, less intensive control resulted in higher net returns. Further, the level of greatest pest control intensity consistently yielded negative net returns. This level, however, was less risky in terms of gross returns. Risk did not differ significantly between the other levels of pest control.

Open Access

Mammoth™ ‘Twilight Pink Daisy’ (U.S. Plant Patent 14,455; Canadian Plant Breeders’ Rights Certificate No. 4192) is an interspecific garden chrysanthemum cultivar, Chrysanthemum ×hybridum Anderson (= Dendranthema ×hybrida Anderson) with common names of hardy mum, chrysanthemum, and garden mum. It is a new and distinct form of shrub-type garden mums in the Mammoth™ series with rosy-pink ray florets, a dark “eye” color in the center of the disc florets, frost-tolerant flower petals, and self-pinching growth. This cultivar is a butterfly attractant in the garden. Mammoth™ ‘Twilight Pink Daisy’ is a winter-hardy herbaceous perennial in USDA Z3b–Z9 (Southeast)/Zone 10 (West) with its cushion growth form displaying extreme hybrid vigor, increasing in plant height from 0.46 m in its first year to a shrub of 0.76 to 1.22 m in the second year and thereafter with greater than 3000 leaves/plant. Flowering is prolific, covering the entire plant at full flowering with as many as greater than 3500 flowers in the second year. Chemical abbreviations: ethanol (EtOH), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA).

Free access

A new garden chrysanthemum with a shrub plant habit is released as a descendent of a cross involving two hexaploid species: Chrysanthemum weyrichii (Maxim.) Tzvelv. (female) × C. ×grandiflorum Tzvelv. (male). Chrysanthemum ×hybridum Anderson MN 98-89-7 [U.S. Plant Patent (PP) 14,495] is a vigorously growing shrub chrysanthemum for garden culture, exhibiting extreme hybrid vigor. Single daisy reddish-purple flowers cover the foliage in the fall, numbering >3000 on second-year plants. This selection displays excellent winterhardiness in U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Z3b+ (–34.4 to –37.2 °C) as well as frost-tolerant flowers. In its second and subsequent years of growth after planting, MN 98-89-7 grows into a fall flowering (August–October), herbaceous shrub ranging in plant height from 61.0 to 91.4 cm with a diameter of 76.2 to 152.4 cm. Its spherical plant shape is achieved naturally with self-pinching, creating a highly manicured appearance; it also attracts honey bees and butterflies as pollinators. MN 98-89-7 is a vegetative product and this unnamed selection is being released for germplasm purposes as well as for potential licensing and naming.

Free access

Abstract

‘Idlewild’ peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] was released by the Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station to provide a 500- to 600-hr chilling-requirement cultivar which produces a good quality fruit. ‘Idlewild’ produces a heavy crop of medium to large semi-freestone fruit that ripen 36 days before ‘Elberta’ or about June 9 in southeastern Louisiana. ‘Idlewild’ has exhibited good resistance to bacterial leaf spot [Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni (Smith 1903) Dye 1978] when grown under southeastern Louisiana conditions.

Open Access

A long-term horticultural experiment was conducted at two geographically distinct sites in southern Missouri in 2011–15 to study the response of American elderberry [Sambucus nigra (L.) subsp. canadensis (L.) Bolli] to various soil nitrogen (N) fertilizer levels. Three commercially available elderberry cultivars (‘Adams II’, ‘Bob Gordon’, and ‘Wyldewood’) were used. The three cultivars were each assigned to 16 of 48 four-plant plots in a completely randomized manner at each site. Four replications of four N fertilizer treatments (0, 56, 112, 169 kg⋅ha−1 N) were randomly assigned to each cultivar’s plots and applied for 4 years (2012–15). Fruit yields, plant growth, phenology, and pest incidence were determined each year. Fruit quality was assessed by analyzing basic juice characteristics as well as organic acids, carbohydrates, anthocyanins, and polyphenols from 2012–14 samples. Leaf tissue analysis determined the plants’ mineral contents in 2012–14. Most factors evaluated were significantly affected by site, year, and cultivar, whereas the effects of N fertilizer treatment were less definitive. Fruit yields and plant growth increased with increasing N levels. For example, plants fertilized with 0, 56, 112, and 169 kg⋅ha−1 N produced 123, 137, 155, and 161 fruiting cymes per plot (5.8 m2), respectively. The eriophyid mite incidence was higher on fertilized plants, but other pests were not influenced by the N treatment. Basic fruit juice characteristics (soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, polyphenols) were not influenced by the N treatment, whereas total anthocyanins were statistically higher in unfertilized plants. Levels of organic acids and carbohydrates in juice varied statistically among N treatments, but patterns were difficult to discern. Leaf N concentrations were correlated with N fertilizer levels—2.75% N with the highest fertilizer level compared with 2.55% N in unfertilized plants. Leaf levels of most other macronutrients varied, but consistent patterns did not emerge, and none of the micronutrients was different among N treatments. Although elderberry plants responded positively to increased N fertilizer levels in terms of plant growth and fruit yield, genetics (cultivar) and environment (site, year) were more influential on most other experimental factors evaluated.

Open Access