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  • Author or Editor: Zachary J. Reicher x
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Annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) is an invasive weed producing copious amounts of viable seed that compete with seedling turfgrasses during renovation. These field studies were conducted to determine the effectiveness of dazomet (tetrahydro-3,5-dimethyl-2H-1,3,5-thiadiazine-2-thione), a granular soil sterilant that breaks down in soil to release methyl isothiocyanate (MITC), for controlling the soil seed bank of annual bluegrass during turfgrass renovation. Field trials in Urbana, Ill., and West Lafayette, Ind., in Spring and Fall 2000 and 2001 evaluated dazomet rate from 0 to 504 kg·ha-1 and soil preparation techniques to determine the most effective practices to reduce annual bluegrass reestablishment into a creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) seeding. The interval, in days, between dazomet application and creeping bentgrass planting was also examined to determine the optimal seeding time as measured by the level of annual bluegrass reestablishment. Spring trials generally gave poor results that were attributed to windy conditions resulting in rapid loss of MITC. The annual bluegrass soil seed bank was reduced 46% in spring trials compared to 78% in fall trials. Increasing dazomet rates reduced the absolute number of viable annual bluegrass seeds remaining in the soil. However, significant quantities of viable seed remained, regardless of dazomet rate. Annual bluegrass infested the renovated turf in all trials to varying degrees. Dazomet rates of 420 or 504 kg·ha-1 yielded the lowest rates of annual bluegrass reestablishment. Trials conducted in the fall at these rates resulted in annual bluegrass cover of 1% to 20% in the resulting turf. Creeping bentgrass planted at 1 day after dazomet application had significantly less annual bluegrass than when seeded at 7 or 9 days after dazomet application. Dazomet is a tool that can help reestablish a new turf with lower levels of annual bluegrass. However, eradication of annual bluegrass with dazomet is not likely and environmental conditions will dramatically affect the success of the sterilization.

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Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) is well adapted to golf course greens, tees, and fairways but may become a weed in Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) roughs and lawns. The objectives of this study were to determine effects of sulfosulfuron rate and application date on control of creeping bentgrass and safety on Kentucky bluegrass. Field experiments were initiated in 2003 and 2004 in Ames, IA, and West Lafayette, IN. Single applications of sulfosulfuron at 0.011 or 0.022 kg·ha−1 were applied over a 9-week period during the fall of each year. Phytotoxicity on Kentucky bluegrass was recorded weekly and control of creeping bentgrass was determined in the spring after fall treatments. No treatment provided greater than 31% control, and there were few differences in control between the two rates of sulfosulfuron. In West Lafayette, late fall applications were the most effective providing up to 31% control of creeping bentgrass. Sulfosulfuron provided less than 18% control in Ames in either year. Kentucky bluegrass was tolerant of all sulfosulfuron applications. Late fall applications of sulfosulfuron may be useful in partially removing creeping bentgrass from a heavily contaminated sward of Kentucky bluegrass.

Chemical names used: 1-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl)-3-(2-ethylsulfonylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-3-ylsulfonyl)urea (sulfosulfuron)

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Roughstalk bluegrass (Poa trivialis L.) contamination is problematic on golf course fairways from the Midwest to the mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. Bispyribac–sodium and sulfosulfuron have potential to selectively control roughstalk bluegrass. Our objectives were to determine the most effective herbicide treatments for short- and long-term roughstalk bluegrass control and to determine if interseeding with creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) after herbicide treatments will improve long-term control of roughstalk bluegrass or conversion to creeping bentgrass. Plots were treated with bispyribac–sodium or sulfosulfuron and then half of each plot was interseeded with creeping bentgrass in early August, 2 weeks after the final herbicide application in 2006, 2007, and 2008 in Indiana. Roughstalk bluegrass cover reduction was highest when treated with bispyribac–sodium at 56 or 74 g·ha−1 a.i. applied four times or sulfosulfuron at 27 g·ha−1 a.i. applied three times. Interseeding with creeping bentgrass improved long-term roughstalk bluegrass control and quickened conversion to creeping bentgrass. Furthermore, bispyribac–sodium and sulfosulfuron appeared to be more effective in the first 2 years of the study when seasonal heat stress was greater, which appeared to improve long-term roughstalk bluegrass control and promoted creeping bentgrass establishment. Chemical names used: {2,6-bis[(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl)oxy] benzoic acid} (bispyribac–sodium), {1-[4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl]-3-[2-ethanesulfonyl-imidazo(1,2-a)pyridine-3-yl) sulfonyl]urea} (sulfosulfuron).

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Little information exists on dormant seeding of buffalograss [Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm.]. The objectives of these two studies were to determine how seeding rate affects establishment of ‘Sundancer’ buffalograss when dormant and spring-seeded, and to evaluate if cultivar or seeding date affects establishment of ‘Cody’, ‘Bowie’, or ‘Sundancer’ buffalograss when seeded at various dates during the winter and spring. In the first study, ‘Sundancer’ buffalograss was dormant seeded at 146, 244, or 293 kg·ha−1 in late November in 2012 and 2013 or spring-seeded in early May in 2013 and 2014. In the second study, ‘Sundancer’, ‘Bowie’, or ‘Cody’ was seeded at 146 kg·ha−1 in late November in 2013 and 2014, late January, March, and May in 2014 and 2015. Dormant seeding of buffalograss resulted in >80% cover by the following August in all studies. Increasing seeding rate had no effect on establishment of ‘Sundancer’, regardless of seeding date. Furthermore, there was no difference in turf cover by August following seeding of ‘Sundancer’, ‘Bowie’, or ‘Cody’ at 146 kg·ha−1 in late November, January, March, or May. Our results suggest that ‘Sundancer’, ‘Bowie’, or ‘Cody’ can be successfully dormant seeded at 146 kg·ha−1 from late November through late March, which allows establishment before the following winter.

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Annual grassy weeds often inhibit establishment of spring-seeded creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) on golf courses. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the safety of the annual grass herbicide quinclorac in spring-seeded creeping bentgrass in varying climatic regions of the United States. Experiments were initiated in Indiana, Iowa, and North Carolina in Spring 2000. Treatments included siduron at 6.72 kg·ha-1 a.i. applied immediately prior to planting (PRE), and quinclorac at 0.84 kg·ha-1 a.i. applied 7 days before seeding (DBS), PRE, and 14 or 28 days after emergence (DAE). Herbicides were applied to three creeping bentgrass cultivars at each location. Siduron reduced establishment of `Providence', `L93', and `Putter' creeping bentgrass in Indiana. Quinclorac applied PRE, 14 DAE, and 28 DAE caused short-term phytotoxicity, primarily in `Providence' in Indiana. Quinclorac applications did not significantly affect cover of `Providence', `L93', or `Putter' in Indiana or `L93', `Pennlinks', or `Penncross' in Iowa. All applications of quinclorac reduced cover of `L93', `Pennlinks', and `Penncross' in North Carolina. Though quinclorac applications resulted in no long-term damage when applied to creeping bentgrass seedlings in Indiana or Iowa, results from North Carolina indicate that caution should be exercised when using quinclorac on seedlings of creeping bentgrass. Chemical names used: 3,7-dichloro-8-quinolinecarboxylic acid (quinclorac); 1-(2-methylcyclohexyl)-3-phenylurea (siduron).

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