Search Results

You are looking at 11 - 17 of 17 items for

  • Author or Editor: Yan Shi x
Clear All Modify Search

Hydroponics has been an increasingly important field of vegetable production. However, a big issue with hydroponics is that certain crops can quickly accumulate high levels of nitrate-N (NO3 ± -N) from the hydroponic system. The objective of this research was to decrease NO3 accumulation and increase the nutritional value and yield of vegetable crops using lettuce and oilseed rape as a model under hydroponic production. In this study, two technologies were applied to leafy vegetable production: 1) using supplementary lighting (blue-violet diode) by manipulating illumination and 2) removing fertilization before harvest for a short term (3 or 5 days), thus providing a practical experiment for improving yield and edible qualities of hydroponic leaf vegetable production. Illumination was applied 4 hours a day (0500–0700 hr and 1700–1900 hr) during good weather, or 12 hours a day during bad weather with insufficient natural light (<2000 lux) during the autumn and winter seasons. Results showed that the lettuce cultivar Ou-Luo and the oilseed rape cultivar Ao-Guan Pakchoi had increased yield (50.0% and 88.3%, respectively), decreased NO3 content (26.3% and 30.8%, respectively), and increased total soluble solids (24.1% and 30.6%, respectively). The 5-day fertilizer-free treatment before harvest resulted in 19.2%, 6.4%, and 16.5% yield increases; and 26.0%, 24.3%, and 47.8% NO3 decreases in oilseed rape cultivar Ao-Guan Pakchoi and lettuce cultivars Da-Su-Sheng and Ou-Luo, respectively.

Free access

We studied the effects of exogenous spermidine (Spd) on plant growth and nitrogen metabolism in two cultivars of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) that have differential sensitivity to mixed salinity-alkalinity stress: ‘Jinpeng Chaoguan’ (salt-tolerant) and ‘Zhongza No. 9’ (salt-sensitive). Seedling growth of both tomato cultivars was inhibited by salinity-alkalinity stress, but Spd treatment alleviated the growth reduction to some extent, especially in ‘Zhongza No. 9’. Exogenous Spd may help reduce stress-induced increases in free amino acids, ammonium (NH4 +) contents, and NADH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (NADH-GDH) activities; depress stress-induced decreases in soluble protein and nitrate content; and depress nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, glutamine synthetase (GS), NADH-dependent glutamate synthase (NADH-GOGAT), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activities, especially for ‘Zhongza No. 9’. Based on our results, we suggest that exogenous Spd promotes the assimilation of excess toxic NH4 + by coordinating and strengthening the synergistic action of NADH-GDH, GS/NADH-GOGAT, and transamination pathways, all during saline-alkaline stress. Subsequently, NH4 + and its related enzymes (GDH, GS, GOGAT, GOT, and GPT), in vivo, are maintained in a proper and balanced state to enable mitigation of stress-resulted damages. These results suggest that exogenous Spd treatment can relieve nitrogen metabolic disturbances caused by salinity-alkalinity stress and eventually promote plant growth.

Free access

Seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) is a notable warm-season turfgrass. Certain germplasm resources are distributed in the southern regions of China. The objectives of this study were to investigate the genetic diversity and genetic variation of Chinese seashore paspalum resources. Morphological characteristics and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers were used to assess genetic relationships and genetic variation among 36 germplasm resources from China and six cultivars from the United States. The results showed significant variation for 13 morphological characteristics among 42 tested seashore paspalum accessions, and that the phenotypic cv was, in turn, turf height > turf density > internode length > inflorescence density > leaf width > reproductive branch height > spikelet width > leaf length > spikelet number > inflorescence length > internode diameter > inflorescence width > spikelet length. According to the morphological characteristics and cluster analysis, 42 seashore paspalum accessions were divided into six morphological types. In total, 374 clear bands were amplified using 30 SRAP primer combinations; among these bands, 321 were polymorphic with 85.83% polymorphism. SRAP marker cluster analysis showed that 42 seashore paspalum accessions were grouped into seven major groups, with a genetic similarity coefficient ranging from 0.4385 to 0.9893 and genetic distance values ranging from 0.0108 to 0.8244. The high level of genetic diversity occurred among Chinese germplasm, and the genetic distance was relatively high between Chinese germplasm and cultivars introduced from the United States. The patterns in morphological trait variations and genetic diversity will be useful for the further exploitation and use of Chinese seashore paspalum resources.

Free access

Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a sensitive and widely used technique for gene expression analysis that depends on stability of the reference genes used for data normalization. Tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa), known as one of the most famous traditional ornamental plants in China, is very popular in both domestic and international markets for its showy and colorful flowers. To date, no systematic studies on reference genes have been performed in tree peony with different flower colors. In this study, we evaluated the expression stability of 12 candidate reference genes in different tissues and five flower developmental stages of tree peony with six different colors by three algorithms: geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. The results showed that protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), ubiquitin protein ligase (UPL), and ubiquitin (UBQ) were the most stable genes across all samples. Helicase, alpha-tubulin (TUA), and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (EIF5A) also exhibited high expression stability in different tissues, in samples with different colors, and at different flower developmental stages. According to the geNorm analysis, the combination of two most stable reference genes was optimal for normalization in all tested sample sets in this study. To further validate the suitability of the reference genes identified in this study, the expression patterns of two putative homologs of chalcone synthase gene (PsCHS1) and chalcone isomerase gene (PsCHI1) were studied at different developmental stages of white flowers. The results provide information for transcriptional analyses in future studies of gene expression on tree peony flower development and pigmentation.

Free access

The pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum musae infects developing green bananas (Musa spp. AAA group), but remains latent until the fruit ripens. The aim of this research was to determine whether the appearance of disease symptoms is regulated by chitinase gene expression following treatment of fruit with benzothiadiazole (BTH) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), and with physical (heat) and chemical (H2O2 and Ca2+-related) treatments. In bananas inoculated with C. musae, BTH and MeJA lowered disease severity and stimulated higher gene expression compared with the untreated controls during ripening. However, in naturally infected bananas, BTH and MeJA treatments slightly reduced transcription of the chitinase gene in green bananas, but they prolonged gene expression in ripe bananas and significantly reduced disease severity. The combination of H2O2 and the NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium, down-regulated chitinase gene expression and compromised disease resistance compared with H2O2 alone. Heat treatment (HT) or the combination of HT followed by CaCl2 reduced disease, but only the latter significantly upregulated chitinase gene expression. The combination of HT and a calcium ionophore (A23187) resulted in different disease indicies and different levels of gene expression depending upon the order of application: HT followed by A23187 induced higher gene expression and lower disease. The results suggest that disease resistance of green bananas could be related to high and prolonged levels of chitinase gene expression, and chitinase could be involved in harvested banana's anthracnose resistance activated by different defense pathway signals, such as BTH, MeJA, H2O2, and Ca2+.

Free access

Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) is an important vegetable crop rich in vitamins and sulforaphane. However, the floral heads of broccoli experience rapid postharvest senescence. Here we found that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) treatment alleviated dark-promoted senescence in broccoli florets. H2S delayed the symptoms of senescence and maintained higher levels of chlorophyll and Rubisco and lower protease activity compared with water control. Gene expression analysis showed that H2S down-regulated the expression of chlorophyll degradation-related genes BoSGR, BoNYC, BoCLH1, BoPPH, and BoRCCR. Expression of lipoxygenase gene BoLOX1 and the genes involved in the ethylene synthesis pathway, BoACS2 and BoACS3, were also down-regulated by H2S. The reduced expression level in cysteine protease gene BoCP3 and aspartic protease gene BoLSC807 suggested the role of H2S in alleviating protein degradation during broccoli senescence. H2S up-regulated the expression of sulfur metabolism genes BoSR and BoOASTL, and the antioxidant gene BoCAT. These results show that H2S plays a vital role in alleviating broccoli senescence through a broad regulation on gene expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism genes, ethylene synthesis genes, and protease genes.

Free access