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  • Author or Editor: W.A. Dozier Jr. x
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Own-rooted four-year-old kiwifruit plants (Actinidia deliciosa) protected by a Reese clip-on styrofoam insulation trunk wrap, or microsprinkler irrigation, sustained less freeze injury than unprotected plants under field conditions at temperatures as low as -17.8C. Trunk splitting occurred on the plants but no injury was detected on canes, buds, or shoots in the canopy of the plants. Unprotected plants had more trunk splitting and at greater heights than protected plants. New canes developed from suckers of cold-injured plants and developed a filled canopy the following season.

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Poultry and coal production are two major industries concentrated in north-central Alabama. Standard surface coal mine reclamation procedures were compared to procedures utilizing poultry litter in an 3.24-ha mine site. Three 0.4-ha plots amended with litter at rates of 25, 50, and 100 mt/ha, were compared to a plot with mineral fertilizer (13N–13–P13K) at standard reclamation rates of 672 kg/ha, and a plot receiving no fertilizer or litter. All plots were amended with ground limestone and disced in 31 cm. A mix of fescue, lespedeza, rye, and clover was broadcast over all plots uniformly. Eight tree species; northern red oak, nuttall oak, willow oak, red maple, yellow poplar, royal paulownia, loblolly pine, and eastern red cedar were planted in all plots at 1482 trees/ha. Forage yields (1995–96) in litter-amended plots were two to three times higher than statewide hay production averages. High litter rates have had no negative effects on ground cover, tree survival, or ground water nitrates (NO3). This project demonstrates broiler litter use as an organic-matter amendment in a self-sustaining reclamation success.

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Abstract

A combination of mechanical and hand pruning each year from 1971-1976 reduced pruning time over that of hand pruning alone for ‘Delicious’ apple (Malus domestica Borkh.). Yield was not significantly affected by pruning method with one exception in 1975. The use of the mechanical pruner destroyed the framework of the tree by inducing a thick canopy and reducing light penetration. Yield was increased by limb positioning at both the 2.3- and 3.0-m spacings. In 1974, higher yields were obtained with the 1.5-m spaced trees and in 1979 with the 3.0-m spaced trees. Average fruit weight was less for the 1.5-m spaced trees than for the 3.0-m spaced trees.

Open Access

Abstract

‘Malling-Merton (MM) 104’ rootstock was significantly more susceptible to black root rot than seedling and “MM 106’ rootstocks. However, ‘MM 111’ was not significantly less susceptible to black root rot than ‘MM 104’ rootstock. Seedling rootstocks were more susceptible to woolly aphid infestations than ‘MM 104’, ‘MM 106’, and ‘MM 111’ rootstocks. Woolly apple aphid incidence was higher on “MM 111’ rootstock than on ‘MM 104’ and ‘MM 106’ rootstocks.

Open Access

Own-rooted, 4-year-old kiwifruit plants [Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev.) C.F. Liang et R. Ferguson var. deliciosa] protected by a Styrofoam insulation wrap with a water-filled pouch (Reese clip-on trunk wrap) or by microsprinkler irrigation sustained less freeze injury than unprotected plants under field conditions at temperatures as low as -17.8C. Trunk splitting occurred on the plants, but no injury was detected on canes, buds, or shoots in the canopy of the plants. Unprotected plants had more trunk splitting and at greater heights than protected plants. New canes developed from suck- ers of cold-injured plants and developed a trellised canopy the following season.

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Abstract

Adequate fruit thinning of ‘Loring’ peach [Prunus persia (L.) Batsch] was achieved with single applications of (2-chloroethyl)-methylbis (phenylmethoxy) silane (CGA 15281) at concentrations of 240, 360, and 480 ppm applied at seed length of 8.8 mm and 2 applications at 240 and 360 ppm applied 7 days apart at 8.8 and 10.8 mm seed lengths in 1978. Additional hand thinning following treatment was required. In 1979 adequate thinning was achieved with 1 application of 240 ppm applied at seed length of 13.9 mm or 480 ppm applied at an 8.5-mm seed length. Yields from these treatments were reduced but did not differ from the control treatment. Multiple applications and higher rates resulted in over-thinning and reduced yields. The sensitivity of fruit to thinning appeared to increase with increased seed length. In 1978, foliage injury occurred at all rates and the severity of injury increased at higher concentrations and multiple applications. However, no foliage injury was observed in 1979.

Open Access

There are a limited number of peach and nectarine cultivars available with chilling requirements that perform well in the Gulf Coast area of Alabama. A test planting of 40 peach and 13 nectarine cultivars was established in 1985 at the Gulf Coast Substation at Fairhope, Ala. The plot was prepared and trees grown according to commercial procedures. Blocks of four trees of each cultivar were planted on a 6 x 6-m spacing. Chill hours were calculated each year based on number of hours at or below 7.3 °C; starting from and including the first 10 consecutive days a total of 50 hours were accumulated to 15 Feb. Data collected included date of full bloom, first harvest date, and total yield. Fruit were measured or rated for skin color, attractiveness, firmness, stone freeness, pubescence, flesh color, dessert quality, shape, weight, percentage with split pits, and occurrence of malformed sutures and extended tips. All cultivars were evaluated for 9 years (1987–95). The best performing varieties are discussed.

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Hydrogen cyanamide (Dormex) treatments were applied to 17 insufficiently chilled peach and nectarine cultivars ≈6 weeks after normal budbreak. Treatment effectively induced vegetative budbreak and reduced shoot dieback. The responses to Dormex treatments were linear, with the 2% rate being more effective than the 0 and 1% rates in most cases.

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The postemergence-active herbicides lactofen, fomesafen, and acifluorfen were applied to established matted-row strawberry plants (Fragaria × ananassa) and evaluated for broadleaf weed control and foliar phytotoxicity. Strawberries were evaluated for yield and fruit quality. Treatments were applied following June renovation. All herbicide treatments resulted in acceptable control of broadleaf weeds present at the time of application; however, sicklepod (Cassia obtusifolia) germinated after herbicide application. All treatments caused foliar injury within 3 days after application. No injury symptoms were evident 21 days after treatment due to new foliage development. Fomesafen and acifluorfen were the only herbicides to suppress runner count. Yields the following year were not reduced by herbicide treatments. Chemical names used: (±)-2-ethoxy-l-methy1-2-oxoethyl 5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl) phenoxy]-2-nitrobenzate (lactofen); 5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy] -N -(methylsu1fonyl)-2-nitrobenzamide (fomesafen); 5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-nitrobenzoic acid (acifluorfen).

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The yellow passionfruit (Passiflora edulis f flavicarpa Degener), a perennial vine grown in the tropics and subtropics, was successfully grown as an annual crop in a temperate zone. Fruit maturity was hastened by ethephon treatments to allow harvest before the mean date of the first killing frost. Maturity was advanced in a linear manner with application rates of 150, 300, and 600 ppm ethephon. Total yield was not affected by ethephon treatment; however, cull fruit producing no juice increased with increasing rates of ethephon, thereby reducing marketable yields. Soluble solids and ascorbic acid contents of the juice were not affected by ethephon treatment. Purple passionfruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) did not produce blossoms.

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