The standard strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa) production system in Florida uses bare-root transplants with three to five leaves; however, commercial transplants are typically variable in size. The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of transplant crown diameter on the subsequent performance of three short-day strawberry cultivars under central Florida conditions. Trials were carried out during the 2012–13 and 2013–14 growing seasons with six treatments resulting from the combination of three cultivars and two crown diameter categories. Transplants of ‘Florida Radiance’, ‘Strawberry Festival’, and WinterStar™ were sorted into two initial crown diameter size ranges: <10 mm and >10 mm. Treatments were established in a split-plot design with cultivars as the main plot and four replications. Dry plant biomass was collected at 6 weeks after transplant (WAT). Canopy diameter and crown diameter were measured at 6 and 18 WAT and fruit harvest started at 8 WAT. There were no interactions between cultivar and initial crown diameter for any of the measured variables. For early yield, larger crowns led to 46% (3.5 Mg·ha−1) and 38% (3.9 Mg·ha−1) higher early yield than smaller crowns in 2012–13 and 2013–14, respectively. Crown diameters >10 mm also resulted in 18% (23.5 Mg·ha−1) and 27% (17.4 Mg·ha−1) higher total yields in 2012–13 and 2013–14, respectively.
Emmanuel A. Torres-Quezada, Lincoln Zotarelli, Vance M. Whitaker, Bielinski M. Santos and Ixchel Hernandez-Ochoa
Kathy Zuzek, David Zlesak, Vance Whitaker, Steve McNamara and Stan C. Hokanson
Steven J. MacKenzie, Craig K. Chandler, Tomas Hasing and Vance M. Whitaker
In west–central Florida, strawberries (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) are harvested from early December to late March. The peak harvest occurs at the end of the season and lasts ≈1 month, usually from late February to mid-March. As the peak harvest progresses and temperatures increase, fruit become smaller and the soluble solids content (SSC) of fruit declines. The main objective of this study was to determine whether the progression of peak harvest results in a decline in SSC independent of temperature. In 2007 and 2008, recently opened flowers were tagged in the field on the first week into the peak bloom (WPB) and for 3 additional weeks thereafter. Three days after tagging, plants were transplanted to one of two constant temperature environments (15 or 22 °C). At maturity, the weight, SSC, and fruit development period (FDP) of tagged fruit were recorded. Fruit SSC was lower at the higher temperature (5.2% at 22 °C versus 6.5% at 15 °C) in both years. In 2007, SSC was not correlated with WPB, and in 2008, SSC was positively correlated with WPB at constant temperatures. In addition, the coefficient of determination (r 2) for a regression of SSC on mean temperature over the period 8 days before harvest was 0.73 for fruit harvested from fields between 2003 and 2009. These results indicate that rising temperature is a major factor responsible for the late-season decline of SSC in strawberry fruit in a subtropical production system.
Emmanuel A. Torres-Quezada, Lincoln Zotarelli, Vance M. Whitaker, Rebecca L. Darnell, Bielinski M. Santos and Kelly T. Morgan
Earlier fall planting dates for strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa) in west-central Florida tend to promote earlier onset of flowering and fruiting. However, warm air temperatures (>28 °C) can result in excessive growth and runner production. Sprinkler irrigation is a common practice to reduce air temperature in the first 10 to15 days after transplanting, requiring large volumes of irrigation water. An alternative to sprinkler irrigation is the application of crop protectants such as kaolin clay after transplanting. The objectives of this study were to determine the optimal planting dates and to assess the most appropriate establishment practices for strawberry bare-root transplants in Florida. Four establishment practices—10 days of sprinkler irrigation (DSI), 10 DSI + kaolin clay, 7 DSI, and 7 DSI + kaolin clay were evaluated for ‘Florida Radiance’ and Sweet Sensation® ‘Florida127’ transplanted in mid September, late September, and early October in consecutive seasons. For ‘Florida127’, September planting dates increased early yield compared with early-October traditional planting dates, with no difference in total yield. Seven DSI followed by the foliar application of kaolin clay at day 8 was also found to increase early yield compared with 10 DSI for strawberry establishment, with annual water savings of 108.7 mm.
Vance M. Whitaker, Craig K. Chandler, Natalia Peres, M. Cecilia do Nascimento Nunes, Anne Plotto and Charles A. Sims
Youngjae Oh, Jason D. Zurn, Nahla Bassil, Patrick P. Edger, Steven J. Knapp, Vance M. Whitaker and Seonghee Lee
The availability of strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa) genomic resources has increased dramatically in recent years. Some of these resources are readily applicable to strawberry breeding programs for use in DNA-informed breeding. Information about these tests and how to interpret them is dispersed through numerous manuscripts or in the laboratories that use them routinely. To assist breeders in identifying tests available to their breeding program and in implementing them in their program, a compendium of strawberry DNA tests was created. This compendium is available for download from the Genome Database for Rosaceae (https://www.rosaceae.org/organism/Fragaria/x-ananassa?pane=resource-4). This resource will be updated continually as old tests are modified and new tests are created.
Vance M. Whitaker, Luis F. Osorio, Natalia A. Peres, Zhen Fan, Mark Herrington, M. Cecilia do Nascimento Nunes, Anne Plotto and Charles A. Sims
Vance M. Whitaker, Natalia A. Peres, Luis F. Osorio, Zhen Fan, M. Cecilia do Nascimento Nunes, Anne Plotto and Charles A. Sims
Vance M. Whitaker, Craig K. Chandler, Bielinski M. Santos, Natalia Peres, M. Cecilia do Nascimento Nunes, Anne Plotto and Charles A. Sims
Chengyan Yue, R. Karina Gallardo, James Luby, Alicia Rihn, James R. McFerson, Vicki McCracken, Vance M. Whitaker, Chad E. Finn, James F. Hancock, Cholani Weebadde, Audrey Sebolt and Amy Iezzoni
The primary goal of this research was to evaluate the relative importance of strawberry fruit quality and plant traits to strawberry producers. Previous studies focus on strawberry traits that impact postharvest quality and marketable yield; however, studies emphasizing the importance of these traits to strawberry producers are scarce. To investigate U.S. strawberry producer trait preferences, a series of audience surveys were conducted at four strawberry producer meetings across the United States. Results indicate that fruit firmness, fruit flavor, and fruit shelf life at retail were the most important fruit/plant traits to producers for a successful strawberry cultivar to possess. Growing state and producers’ years involved in the decision-making process of strawberry farms impacted the relative importance of the fruit/plant traits. This study directly contributes to a larger investigation of supply chain members’ trait preferences to improve the efficiency of Rosaceae fruit crop breeding programs and to increase the likelihood of new cultivar adoption. The overall project should result in a more efficient approach to new strawberry cultivar development and commercialization.