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  • Author or Editor: Timothy J Ng x
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Abstract

Changes in respiration, ethylene production, firmness, pectolytic enzyme activity and carotenoid accumulation during ripening were monitored in fruit of a segregating population of the non-ripening (nor) mutant of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). In fruit from mutant (nor/nor) plants, no respiratory or ethylene climacteric was observed, firmness declined very slowly with only trace levels of polygalacturonase present in mature fruit and phytoene, β-carotene and neurosporene were the major carotenes. In very old fruit (120 days’ post-anthesis), lycopene and β-carotene were the predominant carotenoids, however lycopene content was less than 10% of normal.

Ripening of fruit from heterozygous (nor+/nor) plants was delayed and occurred more slowly than for normal (nor+/nor+ ) fruit. The respiratory climacteric was partially suppressed, peak ethylene production was one-sixth of normal, fruit softening was retarded, and polygalacturonase activity was lower at comparable maturity stages. Fruit from heterozygous (nor+nor) plants accumulated lycopene, gamma-carotene, phytofluene, and phytoene at a slower rate, but β-carotene accumulation was similar to normal. A mechanism for action of nor in control of ripening is proposed.

Open Access

Abstract

The inheritance of low temperature seed sprouting ability in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was found to be polygenic with dominance for inability to germinate at suboptimal temperatures. A minimum of 3 genes is suggested from F2 data and a minimum of 5 genes from backcross results. Broad sense heritability was estimated at 97%; narrow sense heritability, at 66%.

Genes controlling determinate, brachytic, and dwarf habits of growth had no significant effect upon subsequent low temperature sprouting response in the F2 generation. Significant differences in ability to germinate at low temperatures were found among reciprocal F1’s.

Open Access

Cell wall synthesis during development and ripening of `Rutgers', rin and nor tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit was quantified by monitoring incorporation of 14C into outer pericarp cell walls after pedicel injection of (U-14C) - sucrose. Fruit color (Hunter “a” and “b” values) and firmness (Instron) were also monitored. 14C-Incorporation continued throughout development and ripening in `Rutgers' cell walls and exhibited a transient increase from late maturegreen to the turning stage. Incorporation of 14C into cell walls of rin pericarp tissue was similar to `Rutgers' at 20 days pest-anthesls (DPA) (immature-green) but decreased to a level similar to red `Rutgers' fruit by 35 DPA. Incorporation of 14C into nor pericarp cell walls was low throughout the experimental period (20 to 75 DPA). In contrast to previous reports, rin and nor pericarp tissue exhibitad a decrease in firmness of the outer pericarp. However, the rate of softening was slower than in `Rutgers'. Pericarp tissue from rin and nor fruit at 70 and 75 DPA, respectively, resisted compression as much as pink `Rutgers' pericarp tissue.

Free access

Abstract

Four open-pollinated cultivars of muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus Naud.) and five hybrids among them were grown with clear plastic mulch, black plastic mulch, and on bare soil to study genotype × mulch interactions for days to hermaphroditic flowering, days to fruit maturity, fruit soluble solids, fruit weight, and yield. Interactions were not significant for any trait measured, indicating that all genotypes responded similarly to mulch treatments. Diallel analysis showed that general combining ability (GCA) was greater than specific combining ability (SCA) for all traits measured, suggesting that additive variance was more important than nonadditive variance. Plastic mulches increased fruit maturity and total yields but reduced soluble solids content.

Open Access

A tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) breeding line (81B416) with' resistance to anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum dematium was crossed to three susceptible genotypes. Parental, F1, F2, and backcross populations were analyzed in the cross with `US28', while parental, F1, and F2 populations were tested in crosses of 81B416 with `US141' and 81B9. Inheritance of resistance was primarily additive, but 3- and 6-factor scaling tests indicated the presence of dominance and epistatic effects. The average broad-sense heritability estimate was 0.57; narrow-sense heritability was estimated at 0.42.

Free access

A protocol was developed to make in vitro graft unions among Lycopercicon spp., and regenerates from cultured graft unions were evaluated for chimera formation. Young seedlings were preconditioned for 4 to 6 days in liquid 1/2-strength Murashige & Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 8.9 μM benzyladenine and 1.0 μM indole-3-butyric acid. Preconditioned seedlings exhibited increased biomass and enhanced graft union survival. In particular, survival of cleft grafts increased from 37% to 95% with the seedling preconditioning. When graft unions among different genotypes were excised from apex-to-apex in vitro cleft grafts and plated on MS basal medium supplemented with 9.1 μM zeatin and 3.9 μM ancymidol, as many as 100 plantlets were regenerated from a single graft union. However, no chimeric regenerates were recovered, indicating that asymmetric responses to grafting may be a limiting factor to in vitro chimera formation.

Free access

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) genotypes evaluated for early blight [Alternaria solani (Ellis & Martin) Jones and Grout] resistance included five tolerant breeding lines, a susceptible cultivar, and seven hybrids among them. Three of the genotypes (`Castlejay', NC EBR-2, and 87B187) were crossed in a diallel mating design to estimate general combining ability and specific combining ability for the resistance trait. Parental, F1, F2, and backcross generations of the family Cl943 x `Castlejay' were evaluated for resistance and included in generation mean analysis. Hybrid means for area under the disease progress curve were not significantly different from respective midparent values, indicating additive genetic control. Diallel and generation mean analyses also detected significant additive genetic effects. Epistasis was present in the Cl943 × `Castlejay' family.

Free access

Studies examining exposure methods and callus type were conducted to develop an in vitro selection system using roridin E as a selection agent. Vacuum infiltration of callus with the toxin solution was the only successful selection method at the concentrations tested. Primary callus (callus originating directly from the explant) was not sensitive to roridin A or E at the concentrations used. Secondary callus (callus produced from primary callus) exhibited a differential response to roridins A and E similar to that of detached-leaf assays. Electrolyte leakage studies of callus were not conclusive in establishing the membrane as the site of toxin action or useful for screening tolerance in vitro. A small percentage of callus from tolerant and susceptible cultivars survived repeated exposure to roridin E at 50 μg·ml-1.

Free access

Abstract

A 6-parent diallel was used to study combining ability and type of gene action contributing to resistance in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) to anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum dematium (Pers. ex Fr.). The 6 parents, one set of F1, hybrids, and 5 selected reciprocal crosses were grown at 2 locations. Ripe fruit were harvested, puncture-inoculated with the pathogen, and subsequently evaluated for resultant lesion diameter. No reciprocal effects were found at either location for the 5 crosses studied. The analysis of variance for parent and F1 hybrid performance revealed a genotype × location interaction. Combining ability analysis based on the F1 hybrids alone indicated a significant general combining ability (GCA) effect. The specific combining ability (SCA) and GCA × location interaction mean squares were smaller than the GCA value but were still significant. Differential performance over locations of the hybrids of one line was primarily responsible for the GCA × location interaction. Analysis of variance and covariance of parental arrays indicated partial dominance in the direction of susceptibility. Narrow sense heritability for the trait was 70% over both locations.

Open Access

Abstract

Six inbred tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) genotypes and 13 hybrids among them were evaluated at two locations for resistance to early blight (Altemaria solani). The breeding lines 71B2, C1943, and NC EBR-1 were the most resistant, while ‘Castlejay’ was consistently the most susceptible. Hybrid means for area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) generally were intermediate to their parental values, indicating quantitative genetic control. Five of the parents were included in a diallel mating design to obtain estimates of general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SGA) for the resistance trait. Both GCA and SCA were highly significant; the GCA component accounted for 88.2% of the genotypic variation.

Open Access