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Consumer demand for organic and sustainably produced products has increased the interest in organic wine grape (Vitis vinifera) production. However, organic production can be challenging, and weed management is a critical issue during the establishment of an organic vineyard. In 2009, the effectiveness of five cover crop treatments and cultivation regimes was evaluated for two years for weed control in a newly established organic vineyard of ‘Pinot noir précoce’ and ‘Madeleine angevine’ grape cultivars in northwestern Washington State. Alleyway management treatments were cultivation in alleyways with hand weeding in the vine row (control), grass cover crop which included perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne ssp. perenne) and red fescue (Festuca rubra ssp. arenaria) seeded in the alleyway and in-row tillage with a specialty offset-type cultivator, winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) cover crop with in-row string-trimming, austrian winter pea (Pisum sativum ssp. sativum var. arvense) cover crop with in-row string-trimming, and winter wheat–austrian winter pea cover crop mix with in-row string-trimming. In 2009, weed dry biomass was lowest in the alleyway of the control (0.8 g·m−2) and offset cultivator treatments (6.3 g·m−2) on 3 Aug. and tended to be lowest in the alleyway of the control (4.8 g·m−2) and offset cultivator treatments (16.0 g·m−2) on 27 Sept. In the second year of establishment (2010), winter wheat and austrian winter pea were eliminated from the plots by mid-July, and white clover (Trifolium repens) and perennial ryegrass were the dominant weed species and accounted for a majority of the total weeds. On average over the two-year period, the control treatment required the most time for alleyway management (92 h·ha−1) followed by the offset cultivator treatment (64 h·ha−1), while the winter wheat, austrian winter pea, and winter wheat–austrian winter pea mixture required 32 to 42 h·ha−1. ‘Madeline angevine’ produced more shoot growth than ‘Pinot noir précoce’ in Sept. 2010 (42.3 and 25.9 cm respectively), and shoot growth of both cultivars in the control treatment was significantly longer (125.0 cm) than under any other treatment (55.4 to 93.0 cm), illustrating the importance of weed control during vineyard establishment. In this study, the most effective weed management regime, although also the most time consuming, included a vegetative-free zone around the vines (e.g., in-row) maintained by hand weeding and a cultivated alleyway.

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The Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) and other Castanea species (Castanea spp. Mill.) have been imported and circulated among growers and scientists in the United States for more than a century. Initially, importations of C. mollissima after 1914 were motivated by efforts to restore the American chestnut [Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.], with interests in timber-type characters and chestnut blight resistance. Chestnut for orchard nut production spun off from these early works. Starting in the early 20th century, open-pollinated seeds from seedlings of Chinese chestnut and other Castanea species were distributed widely to interested growers throughout much of the eastern United States to plant and evaluate. Germplasm curation and sharing increased quite robustly through grower networks over the 20th century and continues today. More than 100 cultivars have been named in the United States, although a smaller subset remains relevant for commercial production and breeding. The University of Missouri Center for Agroforestry curates and maintains a repository of more than 60 cultivars, and open-pollinated seed from this collection has been provided to growers since 2008. Currently, more than 1000 farms cultivate seedlings or grafted trees of the cultivars in this collection, and interest in participatory on-farm research is high. Here, we report descriptions of 57 of the collection’s cultivars as a comprehensive, readily accessible resource to support continued participatory research.

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Thirty-two tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) or L. pimpinellifolium (L.) Mill. accessions were inoculated with race T2 of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) in a field experiment at Wooster, Ohio, in 1995. Plants from accessions which segregated for race T2 resistance in greenhouse tests were selected and these are designated by hyphenated extensions below. The eight most resistant accessions from 1995 and PI 262173 were retested in 1996. Lycopersicon esculentum accession PI 114490-1-1 had virtually no Xcv symptoms either year. Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium accessions LA 442-1-Bk and PI 128216-T2 expressed a high level of resistance in 1995, but only partial resistance in 1996. Accessions with partial resistance for both seasons were PI 79532-S1, PI 155372-S1, PI 126428, PI 271385, PI 195002, PI 262173, Hawaii 7998, and Hawaii 7983. PI 79532-S1 is a L. pimpinellifolium accession and the remaining seven are L. esculentum. Twenty accessions tested in 1995 for T2 plus 10 other accessions were also tested for race T1 resistance in Presidente Prudente, Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 1993. Hawaii 7983, PI 155372-S1, PI 114490, PI 114490-S1, and PI 262173 had greater resistance to T1 than the susceptible control, `Solar Set'. Comparisons with earlier experiments, in which accessions were inoculated with race T1 or T3, indicated that the most consistent source of resistance to all three races was PI 114490 or selections derived from it.

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Thirty-three tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) or L. pimpinellifolium (L.) Mill. accessions were inoculated with race T2 of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) in a field experiment at Wooster, Ohio, in Summer 1995. These included accessions selected for race T2 resistance in greenhouse tests in Florida, and accessions from Hawaii, Brazil, and Bulgaria. One L. esculentum (PI 114490-1-1) and three L. pimpinellifolium (PI 340905-S1, PI 128216-T2, and LA 442-1-BK) accessions had no Xcv symptoms. This is the first report of resistance to Xcv race T2. Partial resistance was found in PI 271385, PI 79532-S1, PI 155372-S1, PI 195002, and PI 126428. Most of the 33 genotypes were tested for race T1 resistance in Presidente Prudente, Sao Paulo, Brazil in summer 1993. Hawaii 7983, PI 155372-S1, PI 114490, PI 114490-S1, and PI 262173 had greater resistance to T1 than the susceptible control `Solar Set'. Comparisons with earlier experiments in which accessions were inoculated with race T1 or T3 indicated that the most consistent source of resistance to all three races was PI 114490 or selections from it.

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Abstract

The mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] is an important short-duration annual grain legume. Mungbean is grown principally for its edible dry seeds, which are high in protein, easily digested, and prepared in numerous forms for human consumption; e.g., as a green vegetable and for sprouts. Other attributes of the crop include drought tolerance, high lysine content as compared to cereal grains, low production of flatulence, and wide adaptability. Commercial production occurs throughout Asia, Australia, the West Indies, South America, and tropical and subtropical Africa. In North America, production is centered in northern Texas and Oklahoma. Annual world mungbean production is estimated at 1.4 million t harvested from ≈3.4 million ha (1). In the United States >50 million kg of bean sprouts are produced annually from 8.3 million kg of mungbean seeds (4).

Open Access

Cultivar and planting site are two factors that often receive minimal attention, but can have a significant impact on the quality of apple (Malus ×domestica) produced. A regional project, NE-183 The Multidisciplinary Evaluation of New Apple Cultivars, was initiated in 1995 to systematically evaluate 20 newer apple cultivars on Malling.9 (M.9) rootstock across 19 sites in North America. This paper describes the effect of cultivar and site on fruit quality and sensory attributes at a number of the planting sites for the 1998 through 2000 growing seasons. Fruit quality attributes measured included fruit weight, length: diameter ratio, soluble solids concentration (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), flesh firmness, red overcolor, and russet. Fruit sensory characteristics rated included crispness, sweetness, and juiciness, based on a unipolar intensity scale (where 1 = least and 5 = most), and acidity, flavor, attractiveness, and desirability based on a bipolar hedonic scale (where 1 = dislike and 5 = like extremely). All fruit quality and sensory variables measured were affected by cultivar. The two-way interaction of cultivar and planting site was significant for all response variables except SSC, TA, russet, crispness, and sweetness ratings. The SSC: TA ratio was strongly correlated with sweetness and acidity sensory rating, but was weakly correlated with flavor rating. The results demonstrate that no one cultivar is ideally suited for all planting sites and no planting site is ideal for maximizing the quality of all apple cultivars.

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