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  • Author or Editor: S. J. Kays x
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Abstract

Postharvest life of cut Ranunculus asiaticus flowers was substantially extended with low temperature storage; 0° and 5°C were superior to higher temperatures. Extended storage duration, however, increased the rate at which floral senescence occurred upon removal from cold storage.

Open Access

Respiratory rate was measured and vital heat calculated for 18 specialty vegetables {arugula or roquette [Eruca sativa Miller], banana flower bud [Musa ×paradisiaca L. var. paradisiaca], bitter gourd [Momordica charantia L.], cassava [Manihot esculanta Crantz], chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], Chinese chive [Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Sprengel], Chinese water chestnut [Eleocharis dulcis (Burm. f.) Trin. ex Henschel], drumstick [Moringa oleifera Lam.], giant or elephant garlic [Allium scorodoprasm L.], guar [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.], hyacinth bean [Lablab purpurus (L.) Sweet.], Jerusalem artichoke [Helianthus tuberosus L.], jicama [Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban], methi [Trigonella foenum-graecum L.], salsify [Tragopogon porrifolius L.], tindora [Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt], tomatillo [Physalis ixocarpa Brot. ex Hornem.], and tumeric [Curcuma longa L.]} at 0, 5, 10, and 20 °C. Respiration rates increased more or less exponentially with increasing storage temperature in all the vegetables tested, CO2 varying from 28 to 302 mg·kg−1·h−1 at 20 °C for tumeric and drumstick, respectively. At 0 °C, the same products had the lowest and highest respiration rates of the products measured (i.e., CO2 at 4.5 and 28 mg·kg-1·h−1, respectively). Among the vegetables tested, above-ground plant parts such as leaves, fruit, and flowers generally had higher respiration rates than subterrancan storage organs such as roots, corms, and tubers. Vital heat produced ranged from 49 J·kg-1·h-1 for tumeric at 0 °C to 3272 J·kg-1·h-1 for drumstick at 20 °C.

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Abstract

Repression of specific growth parameters of Tetragonia tetragonioides (Pall.) Kuntze (syn. Tetragonia expansa Murray) was studied after application of two types of growth regulators. Succinic acid-2,2-dimethylhydrazide (SADH) decreased stem height and dry weight progressively with increased concentration. Ratio of leaf dry weight to stem dry weight increased with concentration. Maleic hydrazide (MH) caused substantial reduction of fruit weight, with fruit number decreasing only at higher concentrations. Whole plant fresh weight and leaf area decreased only with a multiple 500 ppm application of MH. Leaf to fruit fresh weight ratio increased with concentration and number of applications. A formulation C6 to C12 fatty alcohols (Off-Shoot T) had little effect on fruit development and leaf area.

Open Access
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Abstract

Substantial quantitative differences in kernel pigmentation of pecan (Carya illinoensis (Wang) K. Koch) were measured in 8 cultivars and 1 selection. These pecans exhibit a wide range in color stability with storage and reversibility of detrimental color changes using surface pH alteration. Major differences were found between genotypes in the positive benefit from storage in the unshelled versus the shelled state.

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Abstract

Plant populations of tomato (12.7 × 12.7, 25.4 × 25.4 and 50.8 × 50.8 cm) were studied from the standpoint of changing water needs, alterations in the composition of the soil gas phase, and changes in soil compaction. Increased populations of plants required progressively more water per unit area of land. Distinct changes in the soil gas phase also occurred with increased plant population, date of measurement, and depth in the soil. A typical inverse relationship between CO2 and O2 concentration occurred with increasing soil depth. Both CO2 and O2 decreased with increased population. An inverse relationship between CO2 and O2 occurred in the early part of the growing season, while a positive correlation was noted in the latter part. The O2 concentration increased progressively during the growing season. The concentration of ethylene in the soil gas phase increased during the growing season, however, no significant population or depth effects were noted. There were no significant differences in soil compaction with increased plant population; however, a progressive consolidation with time occurred. Increases in population density of tomatoes resulted in both changes in requirements for production and distinct alterations in the plant community’s environment.

Open Access

Abstract

[14C-ethyl] labeled (2-chloroethyl)methylbis(phenylmethoxy)silane (CGA-15281) was applied to fruit and leaves of 4-year-old ‘Bicentennial’ peach trees [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch]. Virtually none of the parent material moved into the fruit or was taken up and transported in vegetative tissue. Of the small amount found within the vegetative tissue, there was equal distribution between acropetal and basipetal movement. The compound appears to act through the release of ethylene which penetrates the tissue rather than uptake of the parent molecule and subsequent release.

Open Access

Abstract

Five sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] cultivars with diverse flavor characteristics were evaluated by a consumer panel for intensity of taste and aftertaste and for acceptance using a Food Action Rating Scale (FACT). ‘Jewel’ (United States) and ‘Tainung-57’ (The People’s Republic of China) had a moderately intense flavor and received the highest acceptance rating, whereas ‘Morado’ (Central America) and ‘Sumor’ and ‘HiDry’ (new USDA releases) had the lowest intensity of taste and acceptance scores. Correlation coefficients between acceptance scores and taste intensity were not significant for all cultivars, indicating that consumer acceptance of sweet potatoes of diverse flavor characteristics may be based on other sensory attributes. Further investigations using trained profile panels and simultaneous analyses of taste/aroma constituents could determine criteria for consumer acceptance of sweet potato.

Open Access

Abstract

The effect of time of harvest prior to complete field drying of 2 cultivars of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was analyzed relative to the quality of the processed product produced. Early harvest did not significantly affect yield (at 10% raw product moisture); however, it did have a significant effect on the quality of the processed product. Typically the processed dark red kidney and pinto beans were more intensely pigmented with later harvest dates, were firmer, and had fewer split seeds. The respiratory rate of the raw product was highly correlated (r = 0.993) with the raw product moisture level. Only small differences were found in the degree of pigmentation of the processed product when comparing the spring with the fall crop of pinto beans. The fall crop of pinto beans had a substantially lower incidence of split beans in the canned product.

Open Access

Abstract

Pepper (Capsicum frutescens L. cv. Hot Hungarian Yellow Wax) and polebeans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Dade) were grown in an intensive production system with film mulch, broad-spectrum soil fumigation and trickle irrigation. Nitrogen was applied through the trickle irrigation tubes at 0.56, 1.12, 2.24, and 4.48 kg/ha per day for the pepper and 0.56, 1.12, 2.24, and 3.36 kg/ha per day (doubled 6 weeks after seeding) for polebeans. Potassium was applied at 0.83 times the N rate. The N and K were applied twice weekly for the polebean and with every irrigation for the pepper. Marketable pepper yields ranged from 59.6 MT/ha with the low fertilizer rate to 96.0 MT/ha with high fertility. Yield increases with increasing fertilizer rates were not as great with polebeans as with peppers but there was a trend for higher yields with increasing fertilizer rates.

Open Access

Abstract

‘Redhaven’ peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) that were in rest were exposed for 96 hours to 2.5, 5, 10.5, or 21% O2. A second group was exposed to 2.5% O2 for 1, 2, 4, or 6 days. Bud break was enhanced only by 2.5 or 5% O2. Rest release was also influenced by the duration of exposure to low O2. Plants exposed for 2, 4, or 6 days to 2.5% O2 showed faster bud break than did those exposed to the same concentration for 0 or 1 day.

Open Access