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  • Author or Editor: R. A. Reinert x
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Abstract

Four cultivars of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), with different sensitivities to ozone (O3), were exposed to chronic doses of O3 for 7 hr/day in early and late-season studies. Plants were pot-cultured in open-top field chambers. Greater than ambient O3 doses were applied by supplementing the O3 present in nonfiltered air with additional O3 at a constant rate for 7 hr/day. Cultivar sensitivity, as determined using an acute exposure screening protocol, was maintained in both studies. Regression of yield against O3 concentrations showed that ‘BBL-254’ and ‘BBL-290’ were more sensitive to O3 than were ‘BBL-274’ and ‘Dwarf Horticultural’. Results suggest that the acute screen used can predict the relative yield response of cultivars grown under field conditions when very sensitive and very resistant cultivars are compared. The results support the contention that bean germplasm has traits for resistance to O3 at current levels of O3, but that resistance is lost with increasing O3 concentration. Predicted relative yield suppression at a 7 hr/day seasonal mean of 0.04 to 0.06 ppm (the common ambient range in eastern United States) was 2% to 4% for the two resistant cultivars and 10% to 26% for the two sensitive cultivars.

Open Access

Abstract

Ozone (O3) is the most damaging air pollutant affecting agricultural crops in the United States and bean is one of the most O3-sensitive crop species. More than 2000 plant introductions of Phaseolus vulgaris L. were evaluated for sensitivity to O3 by exposing bean plants to 0.6 ppm O3 for 2 hours under controlled environmental conditions; 54 insensitive and 67 highly sensitive plant introductions were identified based on foliar injury symptoms.

Open Access

One hundred sixteen rose (Rosa spp.) cultivars were evaluated under minimal input conditions in north-central Texas for 3 years. Plant quality data included overall plant performance, number of flowers, percentage of bloom coverage, final vigor, and survival. Disease ratings for black spot (Diplocarpon rosae), petal blight (Alternaria alternata), powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca pannosa), and aphid (Myzus spp.) infestations were previously reported. Of the original 116 cultivars, 25 had 50% or higher mortality during the trial. Own-root cultivars performed significantly better than the grafted cultivars and had significantly better survival (P = 0.001). As a class, the Polyantha cultivars exhibited the best overall performance, mean bloom percentage, final vigor and survival, while cultivars in the Hybrid Tea class had the worst performance in all measures. Foliar nutrient content, bloom number, and mean percentage of bloom were not good predictors of overall performance. Of the diseases monitored, black spot was the most severe and was closely correlated to overall performance and final vigor, but was not the only factor determining overall performance. The top five cultivars in mean overall performance were RADrazz (Knock Out™), Caldwell Pink, Sea Foam, Perle d'Or, and The Fairy, in descending order.

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