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Mark J. Bassett

The inheritance of intensified anthocyanin expression (IAE) in a syndrome of plant organs of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was investigated. A selection from accession line G07262, having white flowers with blue veins on the wing petals and a long, white micropyle stripe on black seedcoats, was used as the source of IAE syndrome. G07262 was crossed with three genetic tester stocks based on Florida dry bean line 5-593, which has the flower and seedcoat genotype T P [C r] Z J G B V Rk. The tester stocks were 5-593 (black seed and bishops violet flowers), t z bip bipunctata BC1 5-593 (a partly colored seedcoat), and v BC2 5-593 (mineral brown seedcoat and white flowers). Analysis of the F1 and F2 data from the test cross G07262 × t z bip bipunctata BC1 5-593 demonstrated that 1) G07262 has genotype t p mic V; 2) genotype t/t prevents expression of IAE syndrome by a dominant gene (Prp i -2) carried cryptically by G07262, i.e., T/-is required for expression of the gene; and 3) Prp i -2 may (preliminary data) express blue veins on white flowers with t V. From the cross with v BC2 5-593, an F4 selection for white flowers with red banner back and mineral brown seedcoats (due to v) was made. When the F4 selection was crossed with 5-593, analysis of the F2 progeny demonstrated that G07262 carries a dominant gene for IAE syndrome, which expresses with V/- but not with v/v. From the test cross 5-593 × G07262, a series of additional cycles of selection and test crosses (including the dark red kidney tester c u b v rk d BC1 5-593) were made, and two new two-colored seedcoat patterns were developed that have never been previously reported. In a test cross with one of them, F2 data demonstrated that the dominant gene for IAE syndrome from G07262 is independent of the C locus, and the gene symbol Prp i -2 is proposed for this IAE syndrome gene to distinguish it from the previously reported IAE syndrome gene [c u Prp i]. A gene symbol reconciliation was made for all previous work with inheritance of IAE syndrome and purple pod genes without the syndrome.

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Mark J. Bassett

The inheritance of novel flower and seedcoat patterns was studied in three parental materials: PI 390775 and `Springwater Half Runner' (SHR), which have patterned flower and seedcoat colors, and 5-593, a Florida dry bean breeding line with unpatterned purple flowers and seeds. Using crosses between 5-593 and the other two parents, an analysis of F1, F2, backcross F2, and backcross F3 data demonstrated that a single recessive allele in each of the patterned parents controlled flower and seedcoat pattern. Genetic tester stocks were used to demonstrate that the recessive gene for patterning in PI 390775 was nonallelic with C, T, and Mar, the three genes previously known to control seedcoat pattern in common bean. An allelism test between the recessive pattern genes from PI 390775 and SHR demonstrated that they were allelic and that the gene from SHR was dominant. The gene symbols stp (for the gene from PI 390775) and stp hbw (for the dominant gene from SHR) are proposed, where stp stands for stippled seedcoat pattern and the superscript letters hbw stand for half banner white.

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Mark J. Bassett

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plant introduction 527829 (formerly Lamprecht M0048) has dark seal-brown (DSB) seedcoats and pink flowers. An investigation was conducted to determine the genotype of DSB seedcoat color. M0048 was crossed with Florida breeding line 5-593, which has genotype P [C r] D J G B V Rk. A series of crosses involving M0048, 5-593, and three genetic tester stocks (v BC2 5-593, c u BC2 5-593, and b v BC2 5-593) led to determination of the genotype. Data analysis indicated that M0048 has the genotype P [? R] J G B v lae, where DSB color is produced by the interaction of R with B. Crosses between [? R] and testers with [C r] always produced seedcoat mottling in F1, except where V masks the effect. The cross [? R] B v (DSB) × c u BC2 5-593 (cartridge buff seedcoat) produced marbled seedcoats (black/cartridge buff) with genotype [? R]/[c u ?] B V. No way was found to determine whether the mottled or marbled seedcoat patterns were controlled at C or R; hence, the allelic ambiguity is indicated with a question mark. Illustrations are provided showing the difference between seedcoat mottling (a highly variable low-contrast patterning) and seedcoat marbling (a less variable high-contrast patterning, usually with cartridge buff as the background color). The development of a new genetic tester stock, [? R] b v BC3 5-593, was described, where [? R] b v gives unpatterned dominant red seedcoat color.

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Mark J. Bassett

Dry seeds of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were treated with 20 krad (1 rad = 0.01 Gy) of gamma rays to induce plant mutations to be used as genetic markers in mapping studies. Four leaf mutants are described and illustrated. Inheritance studies demonstrated that each is controlled by a single recessive gene. The proposed gene symbols are: cml for chlorotic moderately lanceolate leaf, lbd for leaf-bleaching dwarf, glb for glossy bronzing leaf, and 01 for overlapping leaflets. Linkage tests involving cml and nine previously reported marker mutants failed to detect any linkages.

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Mark J. Bassett

Linkage relationships between the locus for shiny pods (ace) and the loci for reclining foliage (rf) and pink (v lae) or white (v) flower color were studied in several crosses among common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) parents. Florida dry bean breeding line 5-593 (Ace Rf V.) was crossed with F3 ace/ace Rf/rf V/v lae, and data were taken in F2. Selections from the previously mentioned F2, viz., F3 ace Rf V, F3 ace rf v lae plant no. 1 and F3 ace rf v lae plant no. 2, were backcrossed to 5-593. Data were taken in F2 on segregation for pod, foliage, and flower characters. Linkage between Ace and V was 37 map units (cM), and linkage between Ace and Rf was 31 cM. A revised estimate for the linkage between Rf and V was 11 cM. The map orientation for linkage group VII is ace -31-rf-11-V.

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Mark J. Bassett

The inheritance of flower and seedcoat color was studied using Lamprecht line M0137 (PI 527845) of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) as the source of a new allele, V wf, at the V locus. The cross M0137 c res V wf × C v BC2 5-593 (a genetic tester stock) was studied in progeny of the F1, F2, F3, and F4 generations. The observed segregation for flower and seed colors was consistent with the hypothesis that M0137 carried a new allele, V wf, that produced (in the presence of P C J G B) white flowers and black seeds rather than the white flowers and mineral-brown seeds produced (in the presence of P C J G B) by v. The V/V wf genotype produced cobalt-violet flowers, the same as V/v. A test cross of F3 V wf × t BC1 5-593 bipunctata demonstrated that V wf is not allelic with t, a gene that can produce white or colored flowers and self-colored or partly colored seeds, depending on background genotype.

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Mark J. Bassett

Linkage between the Fin locus controlling plant habit and the Z locus controlling partly colored seedcoats in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was studied in the F2 and F3 progenies from the cross `t virgarcus BC3 5-593' (determinate habit, virgarcus pattern of partly colored seeds, fin tz) × `Steuben Yellow Eye' (indeterminate habit, sellatus pattern of partly colored seeds, Fin t z sel). The heterozygous genotype z sel/z produces the piebald pattern of partly colored seeds, whereas Fin is completely dominate to fin. Selection was made in the F2 for crossover phenotypes: indeterminate habit with virgarcus seeds or determinate habit with piebald seeds. Linkage calculations were based on crossover genotypes confirmed by F3 progeny tests grown in the greenhouse. The recombination percentage between Fin and Z was 1.032±0.33 map units. The gene symbol z sel is proposed, where t Z gives the expansa partly colored seedcoat pattern, t z sel gives sellatus, and t z gives virgarcus.

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Mark J. Bassett

The inheritance of hilum ring color in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was investigated using various genetic tester stocks developed by backcrossing recessive alleles into a recurrent parent stock 5-593 with seedcoat genotype P [C r] D J G B V Rk, viz., mar BC2 5-593, mar BC3 5-593, mar v BC2 5-593, mar d BC2 5-593, and mar d BC3 5-593. The current hypothesis is that the margo character is controlled by mar and hilum ring color is controlled by d but expresses only with mar. The V locus controls flower and seedcoat color. The allelism test crosses `Citroen' (P C d j g b v lae) × mar BC3 5-593 and `Citroen' × mar d BC3 5-593 demonstrated that mar is allelic with j and that the putative d in mar d BC3 5-593 is allelic with the d in `Citroen'. Thus, the former genetic tester stocks mar BC3 5-593 and mar d BC3 5-593 are reclassified as j BC3 5-593 and d j BC3 5-593, respectively, because mar is a synonym for j. Similarly, the former genetic tester stock mar v BC2 5-593 is reclassified as j v BC2 5-593. The interaction of j with d expresses as loss of color in the hilum ring. The development of the white-seeded genetic tester stock P c u d j BC3 5-593 was described in detail, where the all-recessive tester `Prakken 75' was used as the source of the recessive alleles. The previously reported work showing that the partly colored seedcoat gene t interacts with mar to control seedcoat pattern is now interpreted to mean that the joker (J) locus interacts with t to produce partly colored seedcoat patterns. The genetic loci D and V were found to segregate independently. The common gene for dull seedcoats (asper, asp) is discussed and contrasted with j.

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Mark J. Bassett

The development of genetic tester stocks in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) for the partly colored seedcoat patterns `bipunctata BC3 5-593' (t z bip) and `virgarcus BC3 5-593' (t z) was described. The inheritance of the bipunctata pattern was studied in the F2 from the crosses `bipunctata BC1 5-593' × 5-593 and `bipunctata BC2 5-593' × 5-593. The data supported the hypothesis that a single recessive gene (bip) converts virgarcus (t z Bip) to bipunctata (t z bip). The inheritance of bipunctata was also studied in the F2 from the cross `bipunctata BC3 5-593' × `virgarcus BC3 5-593'. The data supported the hypothesis of complete dominance of Bip over bip in a t z genetic background highly related to the recurrent parent 5-593, where only the parental phenotypes appear in the F2.

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Mark J. Bassett

A mutation for blue (methyl-violet) flower color was induced by gamma irradiation of dry seed in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Inheritance and allelism tests demonstrated that the mutation is controlled by a single recessive gene that is not allelic with Sal or V. The gene symbol blu is proposed for this mutant. Linkage was detected between blu and Fin, which controls the change from indeterminate to determinate plant habit. Three linkage estimates ranged from 19 to 35 cM, but the large variability (homogeneity x 2 = 45.32) precludes making a conclusive combined estimate of linkage. The tentative combined estimate of linkage is 27 cM.