Fruit size is one of the most important traits that affect the economic value of fruit. In persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.), somatic and bud-sport mutations that affect the fruit traits are frequently observed. Recently, a small-fruit mutant, ‘Totsutanenashi’ (TTN), was discovered in Japan as a bud-sport mutant of the leading cultivar Hiratanenashi (HTN). In this study, we investigated the morphological and physiological characteristics of TTN and HTN focusing on the tree architecture, fruit size, and the fruit flesh chemical composition. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the potential horticultural use of TTN and to characterize the differences between HTN and TTN. Both TTN and HTN are nonaploid plants, indicating that a difference in ploidy is not the cause of the small-fruit mutation. The vegetative growth of trees and tissue-cultured shoots of TTN was more compact than that of HTN. The floral organs of TTN appeared similar to those of HTN before flowering, but the TTN flowers opened earlier, resulting in smaller ovaries than in HTN flowers. The fruit size of TTN was consistently lower than that of HTN at all fruit developmental stages. TTN fruit had a higher sugar content and a higher proportion of sucrose to total sugars than HTN fruit. TTN fruits contained lower levels of secondary metabolites such as soluble tannins and ascorbate than HTN fruits. These results suggest that the fruit size mutation also affects the fruit biochemistry, leading to alterations in the fruit flesh composition. TTN may be a valuable genetic resource because compact trees require less labor and maintenance, and small, sweeter fruits may meet the various needs of consumers. The use of TTN in studies of the genetic control of fruit size is also discussed.
Hisayo Yamane, Megumi Ichiki, Ryutaro Tao, Tomoya Esumi, Keizo Yonemori, Takeshi Niikawa and Hino Motosugi
Ayako Ikegami, Sai Eguchi, Keizo Yonemori, Masahiko Yamada, Akihiko Sato, Nobuhito Mitani and Akira Kitajima
Pollination-constant and nonastringent (PCNA) is one of the most desirable traits in persimmons as this type of cultivar loses its astringency while still on the tree before harvest. Among Japanese PCNA cultivars, the trait is qualitatively inherited and recessive to pollination-constant, astringent (PCA), pollination-variant, nonastringent (PVNA), and pollination-variant, astringent (PVA) types. However, in a previous trial, both astringent and nonastringent types segregated in the F1 population that resulted from a cross between a Chinese PCNA `Luo Tian Tian Shi' and a Japanese PCNA cultivar. Because of the unusual segregation, in this study, we crossed another Japanese PCNA `Okugosho' with `Luo Tian Tian Shi' to confirm the segregation of astringent types by measuring the tannin cell size and tannin concentration at harvest. Previously, we found that astringent types have larger tannin cells than PCNA-type. The F1 hybrid progenies from the cross segregated into both PCNA and astringent-type individuals in approximately 1:1 ratio. Likewise, the F1 population from the astringent-type `Yotsumizo' and `Iwasedo' × `Luo Tian Tian Shi' were ascertained to contain both PCNA and astringent types, which indicates that the PCNA trait of `Luo Tian Tian Shi' was dominant. Thus, this Chinese cultivar has the potential to become an important parental material for future breeding of PCNA persimmons.
Takashi Akagi, Yumi Takeda, Keizo Yonemori, Ayako Ikegami, Atsushi Kono, Masahiko Yamada and Shinya Kanzaki
Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) is generally hexaploid, and a single AST locus controls the pollination-constant non-astringency trait on each of six corresponding chromosomes. The pollination-constant non-astringent (PCNA) genotype is nulliplex and requires homozygous recessive alleles (ast) at the AST locus. There are several non-PCNA cultivars/selections that could be cross parents; however, the probability of yielding nulliplex offspring depends on the number of recessive alleles (ast). In genotyping for the AST locus in hexaploid persimmon, in contrast to the situation in diploid plants, we need to detect the AST/ast allele dosage; this cannot be detected by common codominant markers. In this study, we detected the allele dosage of Mast, which is a marker allele strongly linked to the ast allele among cultivars, by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) using three reference sites, actin (DkAct), anthocyanin reductase (DkANR), and L5R, whose sequences are conserved in the genome of persimmon cultivars. Based on the allele dosage of the Mast, AST/ast genotypes were estimated for 63 non-astringent cultivars/selections, of which only five cultivars/selections were estimated to be simplex or duplex. The quantitative genotyping method using qPCR may be generally effective for polyploid plants.
Wichan Eiadthong, Keizo Yonemori, Shinya Kanzaki, Akira Sugiura, Naoki Utsunomiya and Suranant Subhadrabandhu
The phylogenetic relationships among 14 Mangifera L. species including three economically important species, i.e., common mango (M. indica L.), horse mango (M. foetida Lour.) and kwini (M. odorata Griff.), were analyzed by comparing 217 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. The unweighted pair grouping method using arithmetic averages (UPGMA) and neighbor-joining (NJ) method were used and two outgroup taxa, cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L.) and gandaria (Bouea macrophylla Griff.), were added to both analyses. The common mango was closely related to banana mango (M. sylvatica Roxb.), M. laurina Bl., and M. oblongifolia Hook.f. Intraspecific variation among seven cultivars of common mango was much smaller than interspecific variation and these cultivars were classified into one M. indica group using both methods. Mangifera macrocarpa Bl., M. foetida, and M. odorata were also related to M. indica in both UPGMA and NJ trees, although these three species are classified into a different subgenus (subgenus Limus) from the subgenus Mangifera to which M. indica belongs. Also, in both UPGMA and NJ trees, M. gedebe Miq. and M. griffithii Hk.f. were placed in distant positions among the Mangifera species tested, indicating these two species are related distantly to M. indica. The AFLP technique was confirmed to be useful for phylogenetic analysis.
Keizo Yonemori, Junya Yoshida, Ayako Ikegami, Akihiko Sato, Masahiko Yamada and Akira Kitajima
Pollination-constant and non-astringent (PCNA)-type persimmon has probably originated from astringent (non-PCNA)-type as a mutant that terminates condensed tannin accumulation at an early stage of fruit development. This trait is confirmed to be recessive and is controlled by a single locus. Since PCNA-type fruit stops tannin accumulation at an early stage, comparison of the gene expressions between PCNA- and non-PCNA-type will reveal the genes conferring condensed tannin accumulation in persimmon fruit. We performed suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) analysis for detecting differentially expressed genes in non-PCNA-type fruit using BC1 offspring from a cross between PCNA `Fuyu' and non-PCNA “275-13” (F1 progeny derived from non-PCNA `Aizumishirazu' × PCNA `Taishu'). Fruits from seven individuals of PCNA or non-PCNA offspring in BC1 were sampled at early two stages of fruit development and total RNA was extracted by hot borate method from each fruit of different stage. Then, RNA was pooled as PCNA or non-PCNA bulk at two stages and cDNA was synthesized from each bulk for SSH analysis. A total of 5000 clones expressed differentially in non-PCNA-type fruit were picked from SSH library of two stages and 198 positive clones confirmed by differential screening were sequenced. The homologous sequences for the genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis (CHS, CHI, F3H, F3'5'H, DFR, UFGT, and ANS) were obtained from the clones. The genes that are not considered to be involved in flavonoid biosynthesis so far (SCPL and DHQ) were also detected with high frequencies. We will discuss the role of these genes for condensed tannin accumulation in persimmon fruit.
Keizo Yonemori, Ayako Ikegami, Sai Eguchi, Akira Kitajima, Shinya Kanzaki, Akihiko Sato and Masahiko Yamada
There is a non-astringent type of persimmon that loses its astringency naturally on trees, despite the absence of seeds. This type is called pollination-constant and non-astringent (PCNA)-type. PCNA-type was thought to have originated in Japan as a mutant that terminates tannin accumulation at an early stage of fruit development. This trait is confirmed to be recessive and the PCNA-type must be homozygous in all alleles. In fact, crossing among PCNA-type individuals yields only the PCNA-type in F1, while crossing between PCNA-type and non-PCNA-type yields only the non-PCNA-type. However, a new PCNA cultivar, `Luo Tian Tian Shi', was reported in 1982 to exist in Luo Tian County, China, and this PCNA-type seemed to have different mechanisms to be PCNA-type. Our previous report showed that a crossing between `Luo Tian Tian Shi' and Japanese PCNA `Taishu' yielded both PCNA-type and astringent-type in F1, indicating that the trait of PCNA in `Luo Tian Tian Shi' may be dominant. To confirm this hypothesis, we made crossings between `Luo Tian Tian Shi' and Japanese astringent-type `Yotsumizo' or `Iwasedo', and top-grafted these seedlings for earlier fruiting. As we had some fruits in a total of 25 F1 individuals last year, we investigated segregation of astringency among these individuals. We also confirmed the parental relationships of these progenies by analyzing several SSR markers. We confirmed the segregation of PCNA-type and astringent-type in F1. No mistake of artificial pollination was shown in all individuals by SSR markers. Thus, we concluded that the trait of astringency-loss in `Luo Tian Tian Shi' is dominant and the use of this cultivar as a parent will open a new window for breeding PCNA-type persimmon.
Nobuhito Mitani, Atsushi Kono, Masahiko Yamada, Akihiko Sato, Shozo Kobayashi, Yusuke Ban, Toshihito Ueno, Mikio Shiraishi, Shinya Kanzaki, Tomoyuki Tsujimoto and Keizo Yonemori
Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb) is hexaploid, and the pollination-constant, non-astringent (PCNA)/non-PCNA trait of Japanese origin is qualitatively controlled by the AST/ast alleles at a single locus and the PCNA trait is recessive to the non-PCNA trait. To avoid inbreeding depression led by repeated crosses among PCNA genotypes, non-PCNA genotypes should be used as cross parents. The marker-assisted selection system has been developed for the selection of PCNA offspring in the progeny derived from the cross of non-PCNA ‘Taigetsu’ (non-PCNA ‘Kurokuma’ × PCNA ‘Taishu’) to PCNA ‘Kanshu’. The primer pairs E8.5/E9r and 7H9F/AST-R were used for detecting the molecular markers A1 and A3, respectively, which link AST alleles. Complete agreement was found between the sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker genotype and fruit astringency phenotype of the 48 offspring. The result confirmed that the marker-assisted selection using those markers was highly practical. In a larger offspring population (522 offspring) from the same cross, offspring segregated into 100 with both markers, 162 with only A1, 179 with A3, and 81 with neither, and this segregation ratio was significantly different from 2:3:3:2, which is the segregation ratio of random chromosome assortment in autohexaploid. The percentage of offspring expected to be PCNA was 15.5% (81 of 522), which was slightly lower than 20%.