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  • Author or Editor: J. L. Maas x
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Ellagic acid in tissue extracts of green and red-ripe strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) was detected and quantified by HPLC. Ellagic acid content of green fruit pulp ranged from 1.32 to 8.43 mg·g-1 of tissue dry weight (mean 3.36 mg·g-l) and in achenes of green fruit from 1.32 to 20.73 mg·g-1 (mean 7.24). Ellagic acid content of red fruit pulp at one location for 35 cultivars and selections ranged from 0.43 to 4.64 mg·g-1 of dry weight (mean 1.55) and from 0.43 to 3.47 mg·g-l (mean 1.45) for 15 clones at another location. Achenes from red-ripe fruit ranged from 1.37 to 21.65 mg·g-1 (mean 8.46) for 34 clones at one location and from 2.81 to 18.37 mg·g-1 (mean 8.93) for 15 clones at another location. Leaf ellagic acid content ranged from 8.08 to 32.30 mg·g-1 of dry weight (mean 14.71) for 13 clones examined. Large differences in ellagic acid content were found among cultivars, but tissue values were not consistent within cultivars. Values from one tissue type did not correlate consistently with values of the other tissues. Sufficient variation was found among cultivars to suggest that increased ellagic acid levels may be achieved in progeny from crosses with selected parental material.

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Globe artichokes (Cynara scolymus L.) were grown for 2 years in artificially salinized field plots in the irrigated desert area near Brawley, Calif. Saline treatments were imposed by irrigation with waters that contained equal weights of NaCl and CaCl,. Increased incidence and severity of Ca deficiency in the inner bracts of artichoke buds were directly related to increased levels of salinity. The Ca-deficient bracts were subject to infection by species of Botrytis and Erwinia. The number of marketable artichokes was reduced 20% or more when irrigation water salinity exceeded 2.0 dS·m–1, and up to 50% at 10 dS·m–1. Calcium deficiency in the artichoke bud is believed to be the result of disparate Ca distribution among the tissues, which is caused by high transpiration rates in the desert environment and the reduction in root pressure by soil salinity. Elemental analysis of leaf tissues can not be used to predict Ca deficiency within the artichoke buds.

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Ellagic acid, a putative anticarcinogenic compound, was detected in plants of mayhaw (Crataegus spp.), false strawberry (Duchesnea indica), strawberry (Fragaria spp.), black currant (Ribes nigrum), thornless blackberry (Rubus subgenus Eubatus), red raspberry (Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus), and cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon). Large differences in ellagic acid contents have been found among species and cultivars and also among tissues. Ellagic acid content in plant tissues is also affected by environmental factors and shows a seasonal variation in strawberry leaves. A decrease in ellagic acid content of leaves was associated with seasonal decreases in photoperiod and temperature from September to December. Ellagic acid content in the leaves of red raspberry infected with orange rust showed more than a 3-fold increase compared to healthy leaves.

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Strawberry fruit phyllody, production of leaves and other vegetative organs from fruit tissue around achenes, has been ascribed to physiological causes due to temperature conditions during transplant cold storage, plant response to changing seasonal conditions at flower initiation time, and to phytoplasma infection. In examination of phylloid fruits from different strawberry clones and from different locations and sources, we found four distinct phytoplasmas associated with phyllody of strawberry fruit: strawberry multicipita (SM) phytoplasma (16S rRNA group VI, subgroup B), STRAWB2 phytoplasma (16S rRNA group I, subgroup K), clover yellow edge phytoplasma (16S rRNA group III, subgroup A), and a new group III phytoplasma. The SM and STRAWB2 phytoplasmas were detected in plants with phylloid fruit that also exhibited stunting and crown proliferation (SM phytoplasma) or stunting and leaf chlorosis (STRAWB2 phytoplasma). In no instances did we fail to detect phytoplasmas in phylloid fruit. To our knowledge, this is the first report to associate strawberry fruit phyllody with the presence of these phytoplasmas and to report that phytoplasmas other than those belonging to 16S rRNA group I (aster yellows group) can also be associated with strawberry fruit phyllody.

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Bacterial angular leafspot disease (BALD) of strawberry, caused by Xanthomonas fragariae Kennedy & King, has dramatically affected commercial fruit and plant production throughout the world. Leaf lesions may kill leaves, while lesions on sepals make fruit unmarketable. The bacterium can kill stolon-tip plantlets that are being rooted for transplanting. Since plants become systemically infected, there is no adequate chemical control for BALD under conditions that favor development and spread of the disease. Strawberry is the only host and no cultivars or advanced selections have proven resistant to this disease. We screened 23 Fragaria ×ananassa, 13 F. chiloensis, 56 F. virginiana, and 2 F. vesca genotypes for resistance to two pathogenic isolates of X. fragariae (ATCC-33239, the original strain from Minnesota and Xf-3 from North Carolina). Leaves were inoculated by forcing bacterial suspensions into leaves under pressure with a syringe barrel and plunger. Plants were incubated in a moisture chamber for 3 days, followed by 1 week under mist and then placed on a greenhouse bench. Experiments were done twice for obviously susceptible reactions and three and four times for questionable and resistant reactions, respectively. Only two genotypes were found to show a resistant reaction: 80-4-38 (`Earliglow' (F. virginiana clone SG-26 from Georgia) and F. virginiana clone SG-89 (=Luby MS 7-7 from Minnesota). Each of these genotypes exhibited typical hypersensitive responses by walling-off inoculation areas. All other genotypes exhibited typical BALD symptoms 5 weeks after inoculation with both isolates.

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Ellagic acid (EA) a naturally occurring polyphenol in many fruit and nut crops, is a putative inhibitor of certain chemically-induced cancers. Improved methods of extraction, detection and quantification are essential for accurate determination of EA for plant physiological and genetic studies and animal nutrition and chemopreventative studies. Column (C18) preconditioning significantly reduced column retention of EA. An ammonium phosphate/methanol solvent system was used in preference to sodium phosphate/methanol. Fruit sample determinations were 10-100 times higher than previously reported, due to the improvements in efficiency of these methods. EA levels (mg/g dry wt) were: strawberry pulp (1.55), achene (8.46), root (1.55), crown (3.32) and leaf (14.27); blackberry pulp (,2.43) and seed (3.37); and cranberry skin (1.06), pulp (0.31), seed (0.69), leaf (4.10).

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Bacterial angular leafspot disease (Xanthomonas fragariae Kennedy and King) of strawberry (Fragaria species and F. ×ananassa Duch. cultivars) has become increasingly important to strawberry fruit and plant production. Strawberry cultivars and species vary in susceptibility to infection. However, little is known regarding epidemiology of the disease and resistance to infection. Two octoploid genotypes, a native F. virginiana (US 4808, tested as SG-89) and a F. virginiana (SG 26) × F. ×ananassa (`Earliglow') hybrid (US 4809, tested as 80-4-38), previously were found to be highly resistant to two differentially pathogenic strains of X. fragariae representing two of four genotypic strain groups. Our objective was to determine the number of genes involved with resistance for these two strawberry genotypes, whether strawberry resistance is conferred by dominant or recessive alleles, and whether or not the heritability is high enough for breeders to reliably make selections of resistant individuals in breeding populations. About 120 F1 seedlings from crosses of susceptible `Sweet Charlie' with each of the two resistant genotypes were clonally propagated and challenged with each of four X. fragariae strains. These strains were selected to represent four genotypes of X. fragariae defined by repetitive element based PCR: ATCC 33239, Xf-3, Xf-6, and Xf-1425. Plants were quantitatively rated on a scale of 0 (resistant) to 5 (susceptible) in replicated evaluations. High estimates for broad sense heritability support the conversion of the quantitative disease scores to qualitative scores and the classification of genotypes as resistant or susceptible. The qualitative ratings were used to estimate the number of genes involved with resistance. Some segregation ratios fit a 7S:1R ratio, and others fit a 15S:1R ratio, indicating that three or four unlinked loci could explain the inheritance of resistance in these populations. The high estimates for broad sense heritability show that resistant progeny can be selected with confidence, though large populations will be needed to identify enough resistant progeny from which to select for other important traits.

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