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  • Author or Editor: Elden J. Stang x
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The application of ethanol for enhancing effectiveness of ethephon under field conditions on cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) fruit was tested during three seasons (1986 to 1988). The formulation containing ethephon plus the surfactant Tergitol (0.3% or 0.5%, v/v) and ethanol (2.5%, 5%, or 10%) consistently increased anthocyanin content in the fruit by 28% to 54% over the control. In general, fruit size was not affected by the ethephon treatment containing ethanol and Tergitol. The application of ethephon plus surfactant did not increase the anthocyanin content in the fruit. The presence of ethanol in the ethephon and surfactant mixture, however, consistently enhanced the fruit anthocyanin content by 21% to 40% as compared to ethephon plus surfactant. No adverse effect of various treatments on vine growth or appearance was noticed over the three seasons. Chemical name used: (2-chloroethyl) phosphonic acid (ethephon).

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Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. cv. Searles) vegetative tissue was analyzed at various stages of development to determine carbohydrate levels under field and greenhouse conditions and to identify the carbohydrates. Except during dormancy, cranberry uprights in the field had the highest concentration of carbohydrates (soluble and starch) at early blossom, when the lower flowers were at anthesis. As early flowers developed into fruit and upper flowers were at or just beyond anthesis, uprights had lower carbohydrate concentrations. As fruit growth slowed, soluble carbohydrate levels increased and were highest at dormancy. Upright shoot tissue produced the previous year and trailing woody stems followed the same trend as the current season's growth but had consistently lower soluble carbohydrate levels at each growth stage. Starch levels were low in current growth and did not change appreciably with fruit development. Starch was primarily stored and subsequently depleted in the previous season's upright growth and trailing woody stems. Tissue from the greenhouse was generally higher in carbohydrates than was field-grown tissue. Fruit developed from 53% of the flowers under greenhouse conditions, compared to 38% in the field. Insufficient carbohydrate levels may be responsible for the low fruit set observed in the field. Sucrose, glucose, fructose, raffinose, and stachyose were present in cranberry vegetative tissue.

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Abstract

Spring overtree misting using greenhouse mist nozzles was tested for effects on bloom delay, incidence of disease, European red mite populations, fruit size, maturity, fruit russeting and tree survival of ‘Golden Delicious’ apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) on Mailing 9 rootstock. Bloom delay of 9 and 8 days was observed in misted trees in 1975 and 1976, respectively, Apple scab was controlled with standard fungicide spray programs, but fireblight was severe in 1975 on misted trees. European red mite (Panonychus ulmi Koch.) egg hatch was delayed on misted trees but post treatment populations were not affected. Phytotoxicity occurred on calyx and foliar tissue in misted trees in 1975. Fruit set and yield were reduced in misted trees in both years. Fruit size in misted treatments in 1975 was reduced through late July, but was comparable at harvest. In 1976, misted fruit size was reduced. Fruit color, soluble solids and firmness tests indicated maturity was delayed by mist. Fruit russeting in spring misted treatments was reduced. Substantial tree losses occurred in misted treatments in 1975.

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