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A study was initiated to determine the effects of fall fertilization, specifically N application rate and additions of supplemental K on the production of woody ornamental shrub species. The influence of two slow-release sources of K (4- and 8-month) in the form of K2SO4, three K application rates (0, 1, 2 lb/yd3), and four incorporated application rates of N (0, 1, 2, and 3 lb/yd3) from Osmocote Plus+ 15-9-11 were evaluated on the growth of `Fisher Pink' Indian azalea, glossy abelia, and `Tuscarora' crape myrtle. Growth of `Fisher Pink' azalea, as determined by shoot height and shoot width, increased as N rate increased from 1 to 3 lb/yd3 when compared to the control. The resulting growth index improved at the 2 and 3 lb/yd3 N rate when compared to the 0 and 1 lb/yd3 N rates. Height and width of glossy abelia at the 1 lb N rate with or without supplemental K applications increased when compared to some glossy abelia at the 3 lb N rate (primarily those with supplemental K). Glossy abelia at the 2 lb/yd3 N rate with 2 lb/yd3 N from 4-month 0-0-46 had significantly greater shoot dry weight when compared to the 3 lb/yd3 N rate with 2 lb/yd3 N from 8-month 0-0-46. The 1 to 3 lb/yd3 N application rate had more of a response on growth index, visual quality, and visual color on `Tuscarora' crape myrtle as compared to the 0 lb/yd3 N rate. In this study, the potential influence of supplemental K applications on plant growth was mostly evident for glossy abelia at the 2 lb/yd3 N rate and was not evident on azalea or crape myrtle.

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Previous research has shown the effectiveness of prodiamine (FactorÆ)as a preemergent herbicide. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the efficacy and phytotoxicity of prodiamine applied to several woody ornamental and weed species. Phytotoxicity effects were evaluated on eight ornamental species: azalea (Rhododendron indicum `Mrs. G.G. Gerbing'), dwarf yaupon (Ilex vomitoria `Nana'), dwarf mondograss (Ophiopogon japonicus `Nana'), ixora (Ixora coccinea), lantana (Lantana camara `New Gold'), Southern live oak (Quercus virginiana), weeping fig (Ficus benjamina), and daylily (Hemerocallis fulva). Preemergent herbicide treatments (control-nontreated, 2 lbs aia Factor®, and 4 lbs aia Factor®) were applied to ornamentals twice during the experiment at twelve week intervals. There was a reduction in top dry weight for azalea and dwarf mondograss for both 2 and 4 lbs aia treatments. No significant growth reductions were measured for daylily, dwarf yaupon, ixora, lantana, live oak, and weeping fig. The efficacy experiment consisted of four weed species: barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crusgali), crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis), coffeeweed (Sesbania exaltata), and pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) and five preemergence herbicide treatments (control-nontreated, control-Rout® at 100 lbs/A, Factor® 1 lb aia, Factor® 2 lbs aia, and a tank mixture of Factor® 1 lb aia plus Gallery® 1 lb aia) applied to bark-filled containers. Twenty-five weed seeds of each species were broadcast over each container following herbicide applications. The high rate of Factor®, Rout®, and the combination of Factor®+Gallery® significantly reduced weed dry weight compared to the control. All preemergence herbicides significantly reduced weed counts and height in a similar manner.

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Leachates were collected at 3-month intervals over 12 months to determine the influence of bark, controlled-release fertilizer, and dolomitic lime sources and dolomitic lime application rates on pH of nursery media. The randomized complete-block design was arranged as a factorial and included three bark sources (pinebark, hardwood, and pinebark + hardwood), two fertilizer sources (Nutricote 17-7-8 and SierraBlen 18-7-10), and two dolomitic lime sources (microencapsulated granular and pulverized). Dolomitic lime application rates were 0, 5, 10, and 15 pounds per cubic yard. Leachate pH was influenced over the one-year evaluation period by fertilizer source, bark source, and application rate of dolomitic lime. Dolomitic lime source was not a significant factor in adjustment of leachate pH. Pinebark medium had lower leachate pHs than hardwood medium and the medium containing hardwood and pinebark. Dolomitic lime influenced leachate pH of pinebark medium more than the other bark sources. SierraBlen was more acid-forming than Nutricote.

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Science is a challenging subject to teach at the middle school level. The state of Louisiana requires public school teachers to plan their curriculum around Grade-Level Expectations or state mandated educational benchmarks. A program titled Horticulture in a Can has been designed to teach horticulture lessons to middle school students while targeting the state regulated grade-level expectations. All lessons use a hands-on approach as it has been proven more effective than traditional classroom teaching. Horticulture in a Can was developed by a cooperative effort between the Louisiana Sea Grant College Program and the LSU AgCenter's Department of Horticulture within the Coastal Roots Nursery Program. Eight lesson plans have been created to meet twenty-six Grade-Level Expectations for 463 students in 4 schools. Pre- and PostHorticulture tests were given to each class in addition to pre- and postChildren's Attitude Towards the Environment Scale (CATES). All tests were given to both treatment and control classes within each school. The evaluations tested both short and long-term memory on material contained in the lesson plans. The data was analyzed by school, treatment, sex, and grade-level.

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Bifenthrin and fipronil are important pesticides used in the nursery industry for the control of imported fire ants. Our research measured the influence of irrigation frequency and time on the degradation of bifenthrin and fipronil in pine bark nursery medium. Pine bark media leachates were collected over a 180-d period. Levels of bifenthrin, fipronil, and metabolites of fipronil (MB 46513, MB 45950, MB 46136) were measured using gas chromatography and mass spectrophotometery. Bifenthrin leachate concentrations decreased from 60 ppb on day 1 to ≈1 ppb after 120 d. Fipronil leachate concentrations decreased from 40 ppb on day one to a low of 15 ppb after 120 d. In contrast, metabolites MB 45950 and MB 46136 gradually increased over the 180-d period. Metabolite MB 46513 was not detected during the experiment. Pine bark medium leachate concentrations of bifenthrin and fipronil were greater than previously reported levels in pure water. We theorize that organic compounds present in pine bark may have increased the solubility of these chemicals.

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All-American daylily cultivars named from 1994–2004 were evaluated for landscape performance and daylily rust (Pucciniahemerocallidis) susceptibility during 2003 and 2004. Cultivars included `Black-Eyed Stella', `Bitsy, `Leebea Orange Crush', `Plum Perfect', `Judith', `Starstruck', `Frankly Scarlet', `Lullaby Baby', `Lady Lucille', and `Chorus Line'. Bareroot plants were planted in raised beds composed of an Olivier silt loam soil in full sun and received irrigation as needed to prevent stress. Visual quality ratings were made weekly from 19 Apr.–25 Oct. 2003 and 15 Mar.–20 Sept. 2004. Visual quality ratings included growth habit, based on compactness, foliage color, uniformity, and overall aesthetics, and flowering, based on longevity and visual appeal. Other flower observations were made in regard to time in bud and peak blooming periods over the same time frames. Flowering observations indicated that `Black Eyed Stella' and `Bitsy' were the only cultivars showing reliable repeat bloom potential. Among the other cultivars, `Judith' was the earliest to bud and bloom, but also had a blooming period of only 2–3 weeks compared to 4–5 weeks of bloom for other cultivars. Daylily rust ratings were taken in Sept. and Nov. 2003 and in Aug. and Nov. 2004. Rust was most severe on `Judith', `Leebea Orange Crush', `Starstruck', and `Lady Lucille'. `Judith' and `Leebea Orange Crush' showed rust symptoms earlier than other cultivars. `Plum Perfect', `Frankly Scarlet', `Bitsy', `Black Eyed Stella', and `Lullaby Baby' were least susceptible to daylily rust.

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Lantana camara `New Gold', `Irene', and `Patriot Dove Wings' were planted in five pine bark-based media containing 0%, 12.5%, 25%, 37.5%, and 50% crumb rubber. Each medium was amended with 7.14 kg·m-3 dolomite lime, 0.892 kg·m-3 of Micromax, and 4.76 kg·m-3 of 17-6-12 Nutricote fertilizer. Height and visual quality ratings were taken at 4 and 8 weeks. Dry weights were taken when the experiment was terminated. There were no significant differences in height, visual quality, and dry weight of `New Gold' lantana for all crumb rubber rates. `Irene' grew taller and had higher visual quality rating in the 4th week with 12.5% and 25% crumb rubber. This trend continued in the 8th week with taller plants grown in 25% crumb rubber. However, there were no differences in plant quality. Dry weight of plants grown in 37.5% and 50% crumb rubber was reduced when compared to the control. There were no differences in growth or quality of `Patriot Dove Wings' at week four. At week eight a reduction in both height and visual quality occurred with 37.5% and 50% crumb rubber. Plant dry weights were also significantly reduced at >37.5% crumb rubber.

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Common carpetgrass (Axonopus affinis Chase), mowed at 3.8 or 7.6 cm and fertilized with at least 98 kg·ha–1 N, maintained acceptable lawngrass quality during the 1993 and 1994 growing seasons. Cumulative vegetative growth (CVG) quality and coverage were increased in mowed plots fertilized with 98, 147, or 196 kg·ha–1 N. Unsightly seedheads were a problem in nonmowed plots 3 weeks after the start of the experiment, but did not appear in the mowed plots. Our results indicate that mowing common carpetgrass at 3.8 or 7.6 cm and fertilizing with 98, 147, or 196 kg·ha–1 N will provide acceptable turfgrass quality.

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Production of disease-free sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] transplants is of major importance to certified and foundation seed programs and producers. Sweetpotato roots are traditionally planted and cuttings are harvested from propagation beds. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficiency of producing cuttings in nursery containers. Virus-tested and virus-infected `Beauregard' sweetpotato transplants were harvested from planting beds for the purpose of producing cuttings for transplants. Cuttings were established in 3.7-L plastic nursery containers filled with 100% pine bark amended with either low, medium, or high rates of Osmocote 14-14-14 and dolomitic lime. Resulting transplants produced a greater number of cuttings and greater plant biomass with higher fertilizer rates. Increasing fertilizer rates also had a positive effect on cutting production and biomass. Dry weight and stem growth were similar for both virus-infected and virus-tested transplants following first and second harvests. Producing foundation cuttings in nursery containers filled with a pine bark medium proved to be an efficient method of increasing virus-tested sweetpotato cuttings.

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A closed capture irrigation apparatus was designed and constructed for the purpose of monitoring irrigation effluent volume and nutrient analysis from 121-L redwood tree boxes. Measurements were taken monthly from Apr. 1997 to Oct. 1998. Tree boxes were filled with either a 3 pine bark: 1 sand: 1 peat or 3 pine bark: 1 soil media and planted with `Little Gem' magnolia [Magnolia grandiflora (L.) `Little Gem'] or Southern live oak (Quercus virginiana var. virginiana Mill.). In-line, pressure-compensated drip emitters provided irrigation water at the rate of 2 L/h. Daily irrigation volume ranged from 8 L in the fall and spring to 16 L during the summer months. The collection apparatus was constructed from 1-cm angle iron, neoprene rubber, a small drain assembly, and a 22-L plastic container. A square metal frame (43 × 43 cm) was supported by 31-cm legs and draped by a neoprene rubber mat with a drain assembly installed in the center. The drain was positioned into the plastic container creating a closed system to reduce effluent evaporation. The container capacity was adequate to store at least 24 h of collected effluent. This apparatus proved to be an efficient method of collecting irrigation effluent from large containers.

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