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  • Author or Editor: Desmond R. Layne x
  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
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Phylogenetic relationships within the Actinidia were investigated using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. DNAs from 40 taxa, including 31 species encompassing all four sections and four series of the traditional subdivisions within the genus, were amplified using 22 preselected 10-mer oligonucleotide primers. A total 204 DNA bands were scored across the 40 taxa, of which 188 (92%) were polymorphic. A wide range of genetic similarity was observed among the taxa (0.13 to 0.61). The average similarity between varieties of the same species was 0.54, and between different species was 0.28, respectively. Although the phylogenetic analysis revealed a clear indication that section Leiocarpae was a monophyletic group, subdivisions of the other three traditional sections were poorly supported. The UPGMA phenogram showed that the majority of the species clustered into geographic subgroups in accordance with their natural distribution (the Yangtzi River, southeastern China, southern China and southwestern China). The intrageneric subdivisions of Actinidia appeared to be difficult, but some subdivisions could be explained by the geographic distribution of the species, particularly for species of Liang's sections of Maculatae and Stellatae. The phylogenetic relationships among several species with previous taxonomic uncertainty are also discussed on the basis of the RAPD data. The results of this study supplement our previous understanding of the Actinidia taxonomy based solely on morphological characters.

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The pawpaw [Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal.] is a tree fruit native to many areas of the southeastern and mid-western United States. Kentucky State University (KSU) is designated as a satellite repository for Asimina for the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS). An assessment of the level of genetic diversity in cultivated pawpaw would assist in development of the future germplasm repository collection strategies for cultivar improvement. The objectives of this study were to identify intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers that segregate in a simple Mendelian fashion and to use these markers to assess genetic diversity in 19 pawpaw cultivars. Leaf samples from the 34 progeny of controlled crosses (1-7-1 × 2-54 and reciprocal) and the parents were collected, DNA was extracted, and subjected to the ISSR methodology using the University of British Columbia microsatellite primer set #9. Seven primers yielded 11 Mendelian markers with either a 3:1 or 1:1 ratio that was confirmed by chi-square analysis. Analysis of genetic diversity using 10 of the ISSR markers from 19 pawpaw cultivars revealed a moderate to high level of genetic diversity, with a percent polymorphic loci P = 80 and an expected heterozygosity He = 0.358. These diversity values are higher than those reported for cultivated pawpaw using isozyme or randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, indicating that the ISSR marker methodolgy has a higher level of discrimination in evaluating genetic diversity in pawpaw and/or pawpaw has greater levels of genetic diversity than previously found.

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