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  • Author or Editor: David C. Smith x
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The effect of parentage, spacing, and sucker removal on precocity of hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) seedlings was investigated. Wider spacing (1.2 vs. 0.6 m) within the row doubled the number of nuts per seedling in the 5th year but had no effect on nut count in the 3rd or 4th year, nor did it affect the percentage of seedlings bearing nuts in any of the three years. Differences among the four progenies were highly significant for number of clusters, number of nuts, and percentage of seedlings bearing nuts in all years and for number of years to first fruiting. The progeny `Barcelona' × OSU 55.097 had the most bearing seedlings in, the 3rd year but was outperformed by `Casina' × OSU 55.129 in the 4th and 5th years. Number of years to first fruiting varied from 4.3 for `Casina' × OSU 55.129 to 5.2 for `Tombul' × `Tonda di Giffoni'. Sucker removal increased both the percentage of seedlings bearing nuts and the number of nuts per seedlings, but the difference was not significant until the 5th year. Sucker removal reduced the length of the juvenile phase by 3 months. The use of precocious parents was more effective than sucker removal in shortening the juvenile period, while sucker removal and wide spacing within seedling rows increased the number of nuts produced by seedlings in the 5th year. Selection of seedlings for early initiation of bearing will shorten the breeding cycle, and the resulting new cultivars will be precocious when planted in commercial orchards.

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Ninety hazelnut (Corylus sp.) genotypes were surveyed for response to the eastern filbert blight pathogen [Anisogramma anomala (Peck) E. Müller] following greenhouse inoculation using a combination of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and visual inspection for cankers. Most were cultivars of the European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) and a few were interspecific hybrids. Six genotypes did not display signs of the pathogen or symptoms of disease: `Closca Molla', `Ratoli', `Yoder #5', `Potomac', `Medium Long', and `Grand Traverse'. `Closca Molla' and `Ratoli', both minor Spanish cultivars, are superior in many respects to `Gasaway', which has been extensively used as a completely resistant parent in breeding. `Potomac' and `Yoder #5' have C. americana Marsh. in their pedigrees, `Grand Traverse' is one-quarter C. colurna, and the origin of `Medium Long' is uncertain. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker generated by primer UBC 152, which is linked to the single dominant resistance gene of `Gasaway', is absent in these six genotypes, and thus they appear to be novel sources of genetic resistance to this devastating disease.

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Fruit softening occurs by several mechanisms, including modifications of cell wall structure by wall degrading enzymes. The most prominent change in tomato fruit pericarp wall composition is the loss of galactosyl residues throughout development and especially during ripening. In order to understand the role of galactosyl turnover in fruit softening, we successfully produced three recombinant tomato β-galactosidase/exo-galactanase (TBG) fusion proteins in yeast. TBG1, 4 and 5 enzyme properties and substrate specificities were assessed. Optimum pH of TBG1, 4 and 5 was 5.0, 4.0, and 4.5 and optimum temperature was 40∼50, 40, and 40 °C, respectively. The K ms for TBG1, 4 and 5 were 7.99, 0.09, and 2.42 mm, respectively, using p-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside as substrate. Using synthetic and plant-derived substrates, TBG1 and 5 released galactosyl residues from 1 → 4 linkages. TBG4 released galactosyl residues from a wide range of plant-derived oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Using tomato fruit cell wall material, TBG1, TBG4 and TBG5 released galactosyl residues from a variety of fruit stages and cell wall fractions. TBG4 released the most galactosyl residues from the ASP fraction and especially the ASP fraction from fruit at the turning stage. Interestingly, even though walls from Turning fruit stage contain less total galactosyl residues than at the Mature Green stage, TBG4 released 3–4 fold more galactose from the CSP and ASP fractions from Turning fruit. These results suggest that changes in structure of wall pectic polysaccharides leading up to the Turning stage may cause the wall to become more susceptible to hydrolysis by the TBG4 product.

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Eastern filbert blight (EFB) of European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.), caused by the pyrenomycete Anisogramma anomala (Peck) E. Müller, is a major disease problem and production constraint in Oregon’s Willamette Valley. Host genetic resistance is viewed as the most economical means of controlling this disease. Marker-assisted selection has been extensively used for ‘Gasaway’ resistance in the hazelnut breeding program at Oregon State University (OSU). Concern over potential breakdown of this single resistance gene prompted a search for new sources of resistance. Selection OSU 408.040 showed no signs or symptoms of the fungus after a series of disease inoculations, and resistance was transmitted to half of its offspring, indicating control by a dominant allele at a single locus. In this study, we identified six random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and 11 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers linked to EFB resistance from OSU 408.040. The new markers supplement the previously identified amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. A linkage map constructed in the progeny OSU 245.098 × OSU 408.040 spanned a distance of 19.5 cM with the resistance locus cosegregating with AFLP marker A8-150 and located between SSR markers LG675 and LG682. Using SSR markers as anchor loci, OSU 408.040 resistance was assigned to linkage group 6 (LG6). Comparison with the previously mapped ‘Gasaway’ resistance locus showed that resistance from OSU 408.040 maps to the same location.

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The Oregon State Univ. breeding program is developing improved hazelnut cultivars for the kernel market. Most traits of interest are quantitative, yet there is little information available on their heritability. In this study, the heritability of 10 morphological and 4 phenological traits was estimated by regression of offspring means on midparent values. Seedlings from 35 crosses among 41 parents made in 1988 and 1989 were used. The parents represented the wide genetic diversity used in the breeding program. Estimates were all high, ranging from 0.56 for amount of kernel fiber and 0.58 for time of catkin elongation to 0.87 for percent kernel and 0.89 for nut depth.

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Roses in nursery and landscape settings are frequently damaged by black spot, whose causal agent is the fungus Diplocarpon rosae F.A. Wolf. Potassium silicate was assessed as a media-applied treatment for decreasing the severity and incidence of black spot infection. Roses were treated with 0, 50, 100, or 150 mg·L-1 silicon as potassium silicate incorporated into irrigation water on either a weekly or daily schedule. Five weeks after treatments were initiated, plants were inoculated with D. rosae. Roses began to show visual symptoms of infection §4 days later. Roses that had 150 mg·L-1 silicon applied on a daily schedule had significantly more silicon present in their leaves than other treatments as measured by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. In addition, roses that had 100 and 150 mg·L-1 silicon applied on a daily schedule had fewer black spot lesions per leaf and fewer infected leaves than any of the other treatments by the end of the experiment 7 weeks later. Although roses treated with higher levels of silicon on a daily basis fared better than roses in the other treatments, all of the roses were heavily infected with D. rosae by the end of the study. The results reported here indicate that using potassium silicate in irrigation water may be a useful component of a disease management system.

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A diverse collection of 58 hazelnut accessions, including Corylus avellana L. and interspecific hybrids, were evaluated for their response to the eastern filbert blight pathogen Anisogramma anomala (Peck) E. Müller after greenhouse inoculation. Evaluations were made using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and visual inspection. Forty-five of these became infected, 12 remained free of infection, and one gave inconclusive results. The 12 accessions showing complete resistance were European hazelnuts ‘Culpla’ from Spain and CCOR 187 from Finland; C. americana × C. avellana hybrids ‘G081S’, CCOR 506, and Weschcke selections TP1, TP2 and TP3; C. colurna × C. avellana hybrids Chinese Trazels Gellatly #6 and #11; Turkish Trazel Gellatly #3 and backcross hybrid ‘Lisa’; and C. heterophylla var. sutchuensis × C. avellana hybrid ‘Estrella #1’. In a second test, exposure of potted trees under structures topped with diseased wood confirmed the complete resistance of ‘Santiam’, four pollinizers, and ‘Ratoli’. However, a few small cankers were observed on ‘Closca Molla’ from Spain and OSU 729.012, with resistance from C. californica (A.DC.) Rose, in contrast to the results of earlier greenhouse inoculations.

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