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A foliar spray of 0, 1250, 2500, or 3750 mg benzyladenine (BA)/L was applied to 10 Hosta Tratt. (Funkia K. Spreng; Niobe Salisb.) cultivars. Response to BA treatment was cultivar dependent, with BA promoting offset formation in half of the cultivars. Compared to the control, increase in offsets produced by cultivars treated with 3750 mg BA/L ranged from 116% in `Francee' to 3500% in `Francis Williams' at 30 days after treatment (DAT) and from 150% in `Royal Standard' to 2250% in `Francis Williams' at 60 DAT. Offset stage of development, as indicated by the number of unfurled leaves, was also cultivar- and BA-dependent. All cultivars treated with 3750 mg BA/L had an average of three or more unfurled leaves at 60 DAT, while among control plants, 40% of cultivars averaged fewer than three unfurled leaves. No phytotoxic symptoms were noted in any cultivar, and plant size was either increased or not affected by BA treatment. Chemical name used: N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purin-6-amine (benzyladenine; BA).

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In a full-sun Auburn, Ala., field study, 23 cultivars and 1 forma of Cornus florida L. were evaluated for growth from 1994 to 1996 and bract characteristics in Spring 1996. The selections were divided into three groups for analyses: 1) white bracted with green foliage, 2) red or pink bracted with green foliage, and 3) variegated foliage. Among the white bracted cultivars with green foliage, `Weaver' and `Welch Bay Beauty' had the greatest height and stem diameter increases, `Autumn Gold' the least. `Cloud 9' had the largest bract size. `Welch's Junior Miss' had the greatest height increase, while `Stokes' Pink' had the greatest stem diameter increase for the red or pink bracted cultivars with green foliage, and f. rubra the least. `Red Beauty' had the largest bract size. There were no differences among the variegated cultivars in height increase or bract size; however, `First Lady' had the greatest stem diameter increase.

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A study conducted in 1995 and repeated in 1996 determined the effects of repeated BA applications and subsequent repeated removals on yields of offsets in Hosta Tratt. (Funkia K. Spreng; Niobe Salisb.) stock plants. Two hosta cultivars, `Francee' and `Francis Williams', received zero, one, two, three, or four foliar applications of benzyladenine (BA) at 3000 mg·L-1. Plants receiving multiple applications were retreated at 30-day intervals following offset removal from all plants. A single BA application stimulated offset formation in both cultivars in both years, but repeated applications were necessary for a continued response following offset removal. Total offset yield increased linearly as the number of BA applications increased. At 120 days after the first treatment in 1995, `Francee' plants receiving four applications had produced an average of 22 offsets, and `Francis Williams' plants 18 offsets, whereas control plants produced 9.8 and 0 offsets, respectively. Similar data for 1996 were 31.2 offsets for `Francee' and 22.4 offsets for `Francis Williams,' whereas control plants produced 6.8 and 2.6 offsets, respectively. Offset stage of development, as indicated by leaf number, and growth index generally were not affected by BA treatment. No phytotoxicity was observed, and plant appearance was enhanced due to the outgrowth of BA-stimulated lateral buds. Chemical name used: N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purin-6-amine (benzyladenine, BA).

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Clematis socialis Kral, commonly known as the Alabama Leatherflower, is an endangered species with only six known populations in northeast Alabama and northwest Georgia. Cutting propagation of the species will aid in establishing additional self-sustaining populations and provide genetic material for future hybridization and genetic preservation. Such research would also benefit growers, especially native nurseries, who wish to produce this species commercially for its ornamental value. Several experiments were performed to determine the effects of four non-amended substrates on root initiation, root growth, and survival of C. socialis stem cuttings. The four substrates tested included sand, perlite, vermiculite, and a 1 peat (P): 1 pine bark (PB): 1 sand (S) mix (by volume). Some of the best results in the preliminary experiments in 2000 were observed when 2 to 3 node cuttings kept under shade and treated with higher IBA/NAA concentrations were used. In 2004, there was a correlation between root growth and cutting survival and particle size of the substrates. Cuttings rooted in the finer-particle substrates sand and vermiculite had higher cutting survival, root growth, root number, and root quality than those rooted in perlite and the 1 P: 1 PB: 1 S mix. Sand, perlite and vermiculite consistently outperformed the 1 P: 1 PB: 1 S mix which had some of the lowest growth data means. Sand was among the highest performing substrates in all years and it is the most inexpensive and readily available making it the most logical substrate for rooting C. socialis stem cuttings.

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Clematis socialis Kral, also known as the Alabama Leatherflower, is an endangered species with only six known populations in northeast Alabama and northwest Georgia. Cutting propagation of the species would be beneficial for establishing additional self-sustaining populations and providing genetic material for future hybridization. A study conducted in 2000 and 2004 determined the effects of four nonamended substrates on root initiation and growth, as well as survival of C. socialis stem cuttings. Of the four substrates tested, including sand, perlite, vermiculite, and 1:1:1 (by volume) peat (P): pine bark (PB): sand (S), cutting survival was highest in sand in both 2000 and 2004. In 2000, sand also produced the longest roots and highest root quality. Vermiculite produced the longest and most roots and highest root quality in the 2004 study. In 2004, cuttings rooted in fine-particled substrates, such as sand and vermiculite, had higher cutting survival, root growth, root number, and root quality than those rooted in perlite and 1:1:1 (by volume) P:PB:S. The 1:1:1 P:PB:S substrate produced the lowest averages for all data collected in both the 2000 and 2004 studies. Sand was among the two highest performing media in both years, regardless of differences in IBA concentration, misting times, and environmental conditions, making it the overall best substrate for rooting C. socialis stem cuttings. Increasing the concentration of IBA in the rooting solution, providing a cooler environment, and decreasing the number and duration of misting cycles the cuttings received increased cutting survival, root length, root number, and root quality for all four substrates from 2000 to 2004.

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Herbicide-blended and coated fertilizers were evaluated for prostrate spurge control in containers. Ronstar 2G or Pennant 5G was blended with Nursery Special 12-6-6 fertilizer and Ronstar 50WP or Pennant 7.8E was sprayed on the fertilizer (coated). Ronstar 2G-blended fertilizer and Ronstar. 50WP-coated fertilizer provided weed control at the 4, 8, and 16 lb ai/A rates similiar to broadcast (2G) or sprayed (50WP) herbicide applied at the label rate (4 lb ai/A). Ronstar provided better prostrate spurge weed control than Pennant. Formulation had no affect on weed control when comparing blended or coated fertilizer. Herbicide-blended and coated fertilizers provided effective prostrate spurge contol in containers.

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A foliar spray of 0, 1250, 2500, or 3750 mg benzyladenine (BA)/liter was applied to 10 hosta cultivars. Response to BA treatment was cultivar dependent, with BA promoting offset formation in half of the cultivars tested. Increase in offsets compared to the control ranged from 116% in `Francee' to 3500% in `Francis Williams' at 30 days after treatment (DAT) and from 150% in `Royal Standard' to 2250% in `Francis Williams' at 60 DAT with 3750 mg BA/liter. Stage of development, as indicated by the number of unfurled leaves on offsets, was also cultivar and BA dependent. All cultivars treated with 3750 mg BA/liter had an average of three or more unfurled leaves at 60 DAT, while among control plants, 40% of cultivars averaged less than three unfurled leaves. No phytotoxic symptoms were noted in any cultivar, and growth index was either increased or not affected by BA treatment. Chemical name used: N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purin-6-amine (benzyladenine, BA).

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Four wetland species, Canna flaccida (canna), Iris versicolor (iris), Spartinia alterniflora (smooth cord grass), and Juncus effusus (rush), were planted into five different trade gallon container types. The container types used were no hole pots, four holes at the bottom of the pot, four holes half way up the side wall of the pot, four holes three-quarters of the way up the side wall of the pot, and pot-in-pot which consisted of trade gallon growing pots with four holes at the bottom of the pot placed inside a full gallon socket pot with no holes. Canna visual shoot and root rating were highest for the pot-in-pot treatment. Rush pot-in-pot plants had the highest growth indices, visual shoot, and root ratings compared to the remaining four pot types. Shoot count for iris was highest for the pot-in-pot containers. Container hole position did influence growth of smooth cord grass.

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Growth response of two red maple cultivars (Acer rubrum L. `October Glory' and `Northwood') to styrene lining or copper hydroxide coating of 23.3-liter black plastic containers was evaluated. After the first growing season, plants were left in their original container, repotted into 51.2-liter nontreated containers, or transplanted into the landscape. Copper hydroxide effectively reduced circling of roots of both cultivars at the medium–container interface during the first year of production, but was less effective during the second growing season. Repotting from copper-treated containers into 51.2-liter containers or transplanting into the landscape resulted in more fibrous root development and enhanced root regeneration outside the original rootball relative to transplanting from nontreated containers. However, when copper hydroxide was applied to styrene lining, root regeneration after transplanting was reduced. Roots of plants grown in styrene-lined containers covered the medium–container interface more thoroughly than those in nonlined containers, but height, trunk diameter, and root regeneration were similar. `October Glory' had a larger trunk diameter, more branching, and better root regeneration than `Northwood'.

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Buddleia, or butterfly bush, is a popular landscape plant because it attracts wildlife and has some heat and drought tolerance. Dirr and Heuser reported that softwood cuttings of most cultivars rooted well with a basal treatment of 3000 ppm IBA. A rooting study of 11 Buddleia cultivars was conducted in Sept. 1993 and was repeated in May 1994. Terminal softwood cuttings were treated with a quick dip of 0, 1500, 3000, 6000 ppm K-IBA. Generally, increasing rates of IBA increased root count and decreased root length. Root dry weight was minimally affected. `Royal Red', `Empire Blue', and `Lochinch' had 94% to 95% rooted cuttings. Other cultivars rooted equally better. Most cultivars produced shorter, more numerous roots in spring when a higher IBA concentration was used.

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