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J.D. Norton, G.E. Boyhan, D.A. Smith and B.R. Abrahams

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J.D. Norton, G.E. Boyhan, D.A. Smith and B.R. Abrahams

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J.D. Norton, G.E. Boyhan, D.A. Smith and B.R. Abrahams

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J.D. Norton, G.E. Boyhan, D.A. Smith and B.R. Abrahams

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M. A. L. Smith, J. Reid, A. Hansen, Z. Li and D. L. Madhavi

Industrial-scale cultivation of plant cells for valuable product recovery (e.g. natural pigments, pharmaceutical compounds) can only be considered commercially-feasible when a fully-automated, predictable bioprocess is achieved. Automation of cell selection, quantification, and sorting procedures, and pinpointing of optimal microenvironmental regimes can be approached via machine vision. Macroscopic staging of Ajuga reptans callus masses (ranging between 2-6 g FW) permitted simultaneous rapid capture of top and side views. Area data used in a linear regression model yielded a reliable, non-destructive estimate of fresh mass. Suspension culture images from the same cell line were microscopically imaged at 4x (with an inverted microscope). Using color machine vision, the HSI (hue-saturation-intensity) coordinates were used to successfully separate pigmented cells and aggregates from non-pigmented cells, aggregates, and background debris. Time-course sampling of a routine suspension culture consistently allowed pigmented cells to be detected, and intensity could be correlated with the degree of pigmentation as verified using spectrophotometer analysis of parallel samples.

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Ramón A. Arancibia, Cody D. Smith, Don R. LaBonte, Jeffrey L. Main, Tara P. Smith and Arthur Q. Villordon

Consumption of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) has increased in the past decade in part because of its nutritional and health attributes, and because of the availability and convenience of processed products. The sweetpotato processing industry is expanding and supplying more sweetpotato products than ever before. Unlike the medium-sized roots (U.S. no.1) preferred for fresh market, large (jumbo) roots is accepted and in certain cases desired by the processing industry, and overall yield is preferred over strict sizing requirements and aesthetic appeal. Therefore, this study investigated the yield increase and grade proportions in response to plant spacing and extension of the growing period to improve profitability of the production system. Experiments with ‘Beauregard’ and ‘Evangeline’ sweetpotato were conducted in Mississippi and Louisiana during 2010 and 2011. Treatments consisted of a combination of early and late planting date and delay in harvest, in-row plant spacing, and row width. Yield increase was inconsistent with delaying harvest and appears to depend on environmental conditions at harvest late in the season. Marketable yield was consistently greater in early plantings than late plantings. Yield of U.S. no.1 grade was unaffected by delaying harvest regardless of planting date. Delaying harvest in early plantings contributed to increase jumbo-sized roots and marketable yield. The economic assessment of delaying harvest in early plantings indicated a gain in net benefit either when hand harvested for fresh market or field run bulk harvested for processing. Row width and in-row plant spacing had only a marginal effect on yield of canner grade (small-sized roots). The economic assessment of changing plant density indicated no gain in net benefit, which indicates that choice of plant density can depend on other factors.

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H.G. Taber, D.F. Cox, B.C. Smith and K.A. Klock

Sap nitrate was determined with the ion-selective electrodes, HACH combination nitrate electrode, and the CARDY nitrate meter on pepper petioles over five sample dates (n = 160). The electrode values were compared to the Cd reduction method performed on a Lachat automated ion analyzer with flow injection analysis. Thirty petioles were collected from plots of each of several N rate studies and the sap expressed by a hand-held garlic press. Correlation among the techniques were similar (r > 0.9), but the CARDY meter constantly read 100 to 175 ppm higher than the HACH. Across all dates the standard deviation of the difference, compared with the Cd reduction, for the HACH = 16 ppm, while for the CARDY it was 50. While the CARDY meter is easier to use and has fewer steps, the HACH electrode values were closer to the true readings and less erratic. One must use care when interpreting nitrate sufficiency value ranges with different quick-test techniques.

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B. Castillo, M.A.L. Smith, D.L. Madhavi and U.L. Yadava

Interactions between irradiance levels (5–40 μmol·m-2·s-1) and iron chelate sources (FeEDTA and FeEDDHA) were observed for Carica papaya shoot tip cultures during both the establishment and proliferation stages of microculture. Reduced levels of irradiance (5 μmol·m-2·s-1) favored shoot tip establishment regardless of the source or level of iron. However, the highest percentage of successful explant establishment (100%), and significantly greater leaf length (1.16 cm; over double the size attained in any other treatment), resulted when a low concentration of FeEDTA alone was used at low irradiance. During the subsequent shoot proliferation stage, however, higher irradiance levels (30 and 40 μmol·m-2·s-1) were required, and FeEDTA failed to support culture growth when used as the sole iron source. The highest multiplication rates (3.6 shoots per explant) and leaf chlorophyll concentrations (0.22 mg/g fresh mass), and significantly improved shoot quality were achieved at 30 μmol·m-2·s-1 irradiance when both iron chelate formulations were combined (each at a 100 μM concentration) in the proliferation medium. Chemical names used: benzylamino purine (BA); ferric disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate or FeNa2EDTA (FeEDTA); ferric monosodium ethylenediamine di(o-hydroxyphenylacetate), (FeNaEDDHA) or Sequestrene 138Fe (FeEDDHA); indoleacetic acid (IAA); 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA).

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Stephen J. Stringer, Arlen D. Draper, James M. Spiers, Donna A. Marshall and Barbara J. Smith

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Howard F. Harrison Jr., D. Michael Jackson, Judy A. Thies, Richard L. Fery and J. Powell Smith