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  • Author or Editor: Caula A. Beyl x
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Root development of hardwood cuttings of Actinidia arguta was investigated in relation to the size of cuttings and the number of buds. Dormant shoots of 13 Actinidia arguta cultivars and lines were cut into lengths varying from 3.5 to 18 cm and containing one to nine buds. After being treated with 0.3% indolebutyric acid in talc, cuttings were stuck into oasis foam cubes and placed under intermittent mist. Actinidia arguta lines and cultivars included 74-46, 74-55, 124-40, 125-40, 127-40, 119-40-B, `Meader Male', `Meader Female #1', `Geneva #1', `Ananasnaja', `Michigan State', A. arguta cordifolia (Miq.) Bean 1563-51, and a New Zealand A. arguta cordifolia selection. Cultivar significantly affected number of roots, root grade, and length of longest root. In general, cultivars with the highest rooting percentages also had the most and longest roots and the highest root grades. The best cuttings for root formation had eight to nine buds (with three to four in active growth), diameters <2 mm, and lengths >10 cm. Cuttings with five to seven buds (with one to three in active growth), diameters between 2 to 8 mm, and lengths >8 cm exhibited the best root development in terms of number of roots formed, root length, and root grade.

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The growing popularity of Asian pears in the open market has generated a need for more information about their fireblight resistance and stress tolerance. In 1994, Alabama A&M Univ. established a large research planting of 10 cultivars of Asian pear on three different rootstocks. The cultivars included Kosui, Korean Giant, 20th Century, Hosui, Shinko, Ichiban Nashi, Shinseiki, Chojuro, Okusankichi, and Shinsui. The three rootstocks used were Pyrus betulaefolia, Pyrus calleryana, and Old Home × Farmingdale 333. The planting was arranged as a randomized complete block replicated 10 times with a total of 300 trees planted. Mortality was scored in late 1995 and data was subjected to Chi-square analysis. Rootstock did have a significant effect on mortality. P. betulaefolia had the lowest frequency of mortality of 11%, with Old Home and P. calleryana at 24% and 31% respectively. Cultivars also had a significant effect on mortality. Korean Giant and Shinseiki had the lowest mortality of 3.33% and 6.67%, respectively. Kosui and Hosui had the highest mortality of 46.67% and 36.67%. Stress conditions that occurred during 1995 and environmental factors that contribute to the development of fireblight were responsible for the mortality of the Asian pear.

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The landscape plants that exist on the Alabama A&M University, Normal, campus are readily accessible for a plant identification and use course. Managing location, health, and cultivar information is critical to optimizing this resource. As a classroom assignment, campus plants were inventoried; entered into FileMaker Pro 2.1, a relational database manager; characterized; and assigned locations on campus. The campus map was scanned using a Microtek Scanmaker IIxe and the image was imported into MacDraw II. A symbol library, which included symbols for trees, shrubs, and groundcovers, was developed by scanning hand-drawn images and then importing them into MacPaint. These bit-mapped images were duplicated as often as necessary and placed in appropriate locations on the campus map in MacDraw II. Students were exposed to landscape plant materials, database managers, and computer graphics capabilities. This approach has other advantages: database information can be easily coordinated with physical location, plants can be sorted based on their characteristics, and information can be routinely and easily revised and updated. The database is used in the landscape plant materials class as a teaching tool and for self-guided tours.

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In teaching a course in landscape plant materials, the landscape plants which exist on campus are an important and accessible resource. Management of location, health. and cultivar information is critical to optimizing this resource. As a classroom assignment, campus plant materials were inventoried, entered into FileMaker Pro 2.1, a database manager, characterized and assigned locations. The campus map was scanned using a Microtek ScanMaker IIXE and the image imported into MacDraw II. A symbol library, which included symbols for trees, shrubs, and groundcovers, was developed by scanning hand drawn images and then importing them into MacPain. These bit-mapped images could then be duplicated as often as necessary and placed in appropriate locations on the campus map in MacDraw II. In this way, students are exposed not only to landscape plant materials but also to database managers and computer graphics capabilities. This approach also has the advantage that database information can be easily coordinated with physical location. plant materials can be sorted based on their characteristics, and information can be routinely and easily revised and updated.

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Seedlings and microcuttings taken from two western black cherry (Prunus serotina var. virens Ehrh.) trees, one with profuse roots and one with scant roots, were grown in either normal or compacted soil to determine if the variation in the growth of fine and coarse roots under conditions of compaction could be attributed to genetic factors or method of propagation. An image processing system [Image Capture and Analysis System (ICAS)] was used to classify and measure the roots. There was a significant reduction in the surface area of fine roots, total surface area, and root dry weight after 12 weeks of compaction, but the effect on coarse roots was nonsignificant. Initial differences in the larger surface area of coarse roots of seedlings vs. for those of microcuttings disappeared over the course of the experiment. However, the surface areas of fine roots and the total surface area were significantly larger and root dry weight was higher for seedlings than for microcuttings, even at the end of the 12-week treatment period. The surface areas of fine and coarse roots, total surface area, and dry weight of roots were similar at the end of the experiment, regardless of genotype.

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Current goals for space exploration are predicated upon long-term manned space flights and colonization of planetary habitats. Long periods in space without payloads of necessary items from Earth require the development of a self-sustaining ecosystem that will allow astronauts to grow their own food and efficiently recycle the waste products. Crops suggested for growth in space include wheat, rice, carrots, soybean, mushrooms, etc. Optimal and rapid biodegradation of lignin and other cellulosic material of crop residues by candidate edible white rot fungal strains is paramount in the use of these organisms to achieve effective biomass recycling in an advanced life support system (ALS). The incorporation of organic N into the substrate and pairing crop residues may enhance growth and fruiting of the edible fungi, thus increasing the rate of biodegradation of the substrates and biomass recycling. We investigated the mycelial growth of two strains of Pleurotusostreatus (`Grey Dover' and `Blue Dolphin') on processed single vegetative residues of soybean, cowpea, tomato, sweetpotato, or their 1:1 combination with wheat or rice straw. Growth and fruiting of the two strains including another strain (`Pohu') on rice straw mixed with solid thermophilic aerobic reactor (STAR) effluent for degradation and recycling were also studied. Mycelial growth and fruiting in `Grey Dover' and `Blue Dolphin' were significantly repressed on sweetpotato and basil; however, growth of the two strains was improved when sweetpotato and basil substrates were paired with rice or wheat straw. Fruiting was prolific in paired combinations of soybean with wheat or rice straw. High concentration of STAR residue enhanced mycelial growth; however, a relatively lower concentration was required for abundant fruiting.

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Microcuttings of three western black cherry (Prunus serotina var. virens Ehrh.) phenotypes obtained from seedling trees with profuse or scant root systems were grown in two container sizes to examine the early effects of root constraint. Because manual methods to estimate root length and other characteristics are time consuming and subjective, an image analysis hardware and software system (image capture and analysis system) was used to classify and measure the roots. There was a significant effect of clone on fine-root surface area, coarse: fine root ratio, and root dry weight (P ≤ 0.05), but root characteristics (profuse or scant root development) of the parent material were absent in the vegetative propagules from these lines. Container size had no significant effect on coarse- or fine-root surface area but did reduce coarse: fine root ratio (P ≤ 0.05). A threshold effect of container size on root dry weight was detected (P ≤ 0.1).

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While horticultural therapy (HT) has a long history in the United States, the profession has not had the acceptance and growth that related fields, such as art, music, recreational, occupational, and physical therapies have experienced. The objective of this study was to identify the current challenges and opportunities of HT in the United States. Maximum variation sampling was used to select current and former members of the American Horticultural Therapy Association (AHTA) for interviews. A total of 27 participants were interviewed between Nov. 2019 and Jan. 2020 using semi-structured qualitative interviews by Zoom. The interviews revealed six themes: 1) current state of the profession, 2) AHTA operations/structure, 3) education/credentialing, 4) funding/job opportunities, 5) public awareness/networking, and 6) research. This paper will discuss the challenges and opportunities presented in the six themes and provide recommendations for the future growth of the HT profession.

Open Access