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  • Author or Editor: C. A. Jaworski x
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Abstract

‘Keystone Resistant Giant’ and ‘Hungarian Yellow Wax Hot’ peppers (Capsicum frutescens L.), which were clipped 6 and 12 days before transplant harvest in southern U. S. fields, yielded as well as non-clipped plants. In general, pepper plants clipped 12 days prior to transplant harvest produced the best results and frequently gave significantly higher yields than the non-clipped plants. The clipping technique can be used to regulate transplant size, and transplant harvest schedules without adversely affecting fruit yield, provided the transplants are free of infectious diseases.

Open Access

Abstract

Treatment of tomato transplants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) with (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon) at 100 to 500 ppm when flower buds were visible but not open resulted in flower abscission of the first fruiting cluster, adventitious root formation on the plant stem, increased dry-matter content and more rapid plant recovery following transplanting than untreated and/or clipped plants. Fruit maturity was earlier and more uniform on treated than untreated plants. Treatment of transplants with ethephon at 0.28 kg per ha, combined with a fruit-ripening ethephon treatment at 0.9 kg per ha, increased ripe-fruit yield from a once-over harvest compared with untreated or either treatment alone. Flower abscission on transplants was erratic from treatment with 2,500 or 5,000 ppm of butanedioic acid mono-(2,2-dimethylhydrazide) (daminozide), dry matter was increased, no adventitious roots developed, and transplant recovery was similar to that observed with untreated and/or clipped plants. Daminozide treatment had no influence on fruit maturity and yield.

Open Access

Abstract

In field tests conducted near Tifton, Georgia, soil fumigation with either a methyl bromide-chloropicrin mixture (67-33%, 480 kg/ha) or metham (748 liters/ha) decreased weed infestation and increased growth and marketable yields of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) transplants, compared with pepper planted consecutively without fumigation. Alternate-year rotation of pepper with rye also reduced weed infestation and increased yield. Weed control accounted for 81% of marketable transplant yield. Xanthomonas vesicatoria (Doidge) Dows. overwintered in pepper debris incorporated fresh or dried. Bacterial spot occurred too erratically to permit any conclusions except that the methyl bromide-chloropicrin fumigation failed to provide any control.

Open Access

Abstract

Pepper transplants (Capsicum annuum L.) held under simulated transit conditions synthesized substantial amounts of ethylene, the rate of which was temperature dependent. Transplants treated with known concentrations of ethylene (0, 0.1 to 10.0 μ1/liter) were substantially defoliated at levels lower than those that may be produced in transit by the plants themselves. Exposure to ethylene concentrations of 0.5 jul/liter and greater impeded the growth of transplants after planting into the field. Removal of ethylene in storage with potassium permanganate greatly reduced abscission. Elevated storage CO2 levels stimulated ethylene synthesis by as much as 34%.

Open Access

Abstract

Metalaxyl [N-(2,6-dimethyphenyl-N-(methoxyacetyl)-alanine methylester] was applied at 0 and 1.12 kg (active ingredient)/ha immediately after seeding pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. Capitata group) in nonfumigated, plastic-covered nonfumigated, and fumigated Fuquay loamy sand. Metalaxyl increased marketable pepper transplant yields by 93%, increased plant stands by 13%, increased fresh weight by 22%, and significantly reduced Pythium loci. Size of pepper transplants was increased more by metalaxyl application to fumigated than nonfumigated soils. Metalaxyl increased marketable tomato transplant yield by 19%, while the plant size was not affected. Metalaxyl did not affect cabbage transplant yields, but size of marketable transplants was increased by 25% and downy mildew (Peronospora parasitica Yerkes & Shaw) infection was significantly reduced. Soil populations of Pythium spp. were reduced significantly with metalaxyl in the nonfumigated and plastic-covered nonfumigated treatments for the three crops.

Open Access

Abstract

Pepper (Capsicum frutescens L. cv. Hot Hungarian Yellow Wax) and polebeans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Dade) were grown in an intensive production system with film mulch, broad-spectrum soil fumigation and trickle irrigation. Nitrogen was applied through the trickle irrigation tubes at 0.56, 1.12, 2.24, and 4.48 kg/ha per day for the pepper and 0.56, 1.12, 2.24, and 3.36 kg/ha per day (doubled 6 weeks after seeding) for polebeans. Potassium was applied at 0.83 times the N rate. The N and K were applied twice weekly for the polebean and with every irrigation for the pepper. Marketable pepper yields ranged from 59.6 MT/ha with the low fertilizer rate to 96.0 MT/ha with high fertility. Yield increases with increasing fertilizer rates were not as great with polebeans as with peppers but there was a trend for higher yields with increasing fertilizer rates.

Open Access

Abstract

Pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) and summer squash (Cucurbita pepo var. melopepo (L.) Alef.) were grown in immediate succession in undisturbed beds using trickle irrigation with various treatments. Highest combined yield in metric tons/ha for both crops was obtained with film mulch + soil fumigation (117.6) followed by film mulch (112.3), soil fumigation (93.4) and control (69.0), respectively. Yield from the second crop was negatively correlated (r=−.87) with the degree of plant infection with root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood). Intensive production in this manner allows fixed costs to be defrayed over two crops thus increasing the magnitude of return per dollar invested. Multiple cropping of pepper and squash with trickle irrigation has an excellent potential in south Georgia provided nematodes and other soil-borne pathogens can be adequately controlled.

Open Access

Abstract

Late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) d By. was epiphytotic in several fields of tomato transplants and mature tomatoes in southern Georgia in late May of 1976. This is the first time the disease has been observed in transplant fields in southern Georgia since the 1946 late blight epidemic in the eastern United States. Preliminary fungicide tests indicated that a combination of chlorothalonil and experimental compound from Ciba-Geigy GA-1-82 at 1.12 or 0.42 kg/ha gave exceUent control for late blight. GA-1-82 very closely resembles N-(2, 6-dimethylphenyl)-N-(2-furanylcarbonyl)-L-alanine methyl ester (CGA-38140).

Open Access

Abstract

A container was designed to hold a small quantity of seed gel mixture for sowing with a compressed air gel seeder. The container adapted from a plastic filter of a pesticide sprayer permitted complete delivery of small volumes (250 ml) of seed gel mixtures. Containers and delivery tubes could be removed easily for filling and cleaning between successive fluid sowing treatments.

Open Access

Abstract

A compressed air gel seeding system was developed to sow simultaneously several rows with different seed treatments. A technique to plant vegetable seeds at equidistant spacings using a solenoid valve and photoelectric device is described.

Open Access