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Bielinski M. Santos and James P. Gilreath

Over the years, efficacy of metam potassium (MK) on purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) control has been inconsistent, in many cases because of a lack of knowledge about application techniques. Therefore, field studies were conducted to determine the effect of water delivery volumes and flow rates on purple nutsedge control with MK, and the influence of MK rates and concentrations on purple nutsedge control. Three separate studies were established for 1) water application volumes and flow rates, 2) MK application rates and concentrations, and 3) MK concentration levels. For the water application volumes and flow rate trials, a single MK rate of 60 gal/acre was injected with either 1 or 2 acre-inch/acre (27,154 or 54,308 gal/acre) of water. The water flow rates were 0.30, 0.45, and 0.60 gal/100 ft of row per minute within each water volume. An nontreated control was included. In the application rate and concentrations studies, treatments were a nontreated control, 30 gal/acre applied with 0.5 acre-inch/acre of water (≈3000 ppm), 60 gal/acre applied with either 0.5 or 1 acre-inch/acre of water (≈6000 and 3000 ppm), 120 gal/acre applied with either 1 or 2 acre-inch/acre of water (≈6000 and 3000 ppm), and 240 gal/acre applied with 2 acre-inch/acre of water (≈6000 ppm). In the MK concentration trials, 0, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000, and 6000 ppm were tested. Results indicated that neither water volumes nor flow rates used for MK application had a significant impact on purple nutsedge control at 10 weeks after treatment (WAT). However, there was a significant effect of the combinations of MK rates and water delivery volumes on purple nutsedge densities at 4 and 15 WAT. Similarly, MK concentrations obtained from a single application rate resulted in improved purple nutsedge control up to 10 WAT, reducing densities to less than 5 plants/ft2 with 6000 ppm of MK.

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Jose P. Morales-Payan and Bielinski M. Santos

Container experiments were conducted in the Dominican Republic to determine the effects of gibberellic acid (GA3) and nitrogen (N) treatments on the seedling growth of Spanish lime (Melicoccus bijugatus), golden apple (Spondias dulcis), and acerola (Malpighia punicifolia). The three species responded with linearly increased height and dry weight to increasing GA3 levels. Each species responded differently to N rates. Spanish lime did not respond to N supply, whereas golden apple was highly responsive and the growth of acerola was reduced at high N rates.

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Bielinski M. Santos and Jose P. Morales-Payan

Nursery experiments were conducted in the Dominican Republic to determine the tolerance of tamarind (Tamarindus indica), acerola or Barbados cherry (Malpighia punicifolia), and zapote (Calocarpum sapota) irrigation with saline water (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 dS/m) at different frequencies (every 24, 48, and 72 hours) during 60 days. Results indicate that tamarind was the less salt-sensitive and zapote the less salt-tolerant of the three species. Linear relationships were found between salt concentration and growth, with biomass accumulation decreasing as salinity and irrigation frequency increased.

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Bielinski M. Santos and Jose P. Morales-Payan

The response of young `Cartagena Ombligua' papaya (Carica papaya) plants to soil-applied copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn) was determined. Nursery experiments were conducted in the Dominican Republic, where Cu (0, 0.023, 0.046, 0.069, and 0.092 g), Mn (0, 0.27, 0.54, 0.81, and 1.08 g), Fe (0, 0.49, 0.98, 1.47, and 1.96 g) and Zn (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 g per plant) were individually applied 20 days after transplanting. There were significant responses to the four elements. Maximum growth was obtained with 0.092 g Cu, 0.4 g Zn, 0.54 g Mn, or 0.98 g Fe per plant.

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Bielinski M. Santos and Jose P. Morales-Payan

Studies were conducted in the Dominican Republic to determine the short-term response of young `Cartagena Ombligua' papaya (Carica papaya) plants to nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) fertilization. N, P2O5, K2O were individually applied 20 days after transplanting at rates 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 g per plant. Plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, and root and shoot dry weight responded to N and K in a quadratic fashion (N:Y= 30.79+ 1.35X-0.07X2; K20:Y = 30.02 +1.6X - 0.06X2). Maximum growth was obtained with 6 and 18 g of N and K2O, respectively. P fertilization did not significantly affect shoot growth, but it stimulated root growth (Y = 2.02 + 0.41X - 0.013X2).

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Bielinski M. Santos and Jose P. Morales-Payan

The effect of varying calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), boron (B), and molybdenum (Mo) rates on the growth of young `Cartagena Ombligua' papaya (Carica papaya) plants was studied in experiments conducted in the Dominican Republic. Rates of 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 g Ca; 0, 0.85, 1.7, 2.55, and 3.4 g Mg; 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 mg B; and 0, 0.05 0.1,0.15 and 0.2 mg Mo per plant were applied to the soil 20 days after transplanting. Ca did not stimulate plant growth, but instead was toxic at rates of 9-12 g per plant. Mg fertilization significantly stimulated root growth (Y = 2.35 + 0.48X, r 2 = 0.95), but not shoot growth. Mo applications decreased plant growth, whereas B enhanced overall plant growth (Y = 10.64 + 70.5X, r 2 = 0.96).

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Jose P. Morales-Payan and Bielinski M. Santos

Experiments were conducted in the Dominican Republic to determine the effect of physical and chemical treatments on the germination of the ornamental palms Roystonea hispaniolana Bailey (Royal palm), Acrocomia quisqueyana Bailey (Corozo palm), Sabal umbraculifera Mart (Cana palm), Phoenix canariensis (Canary Islands date palm), Veitchia merrillii (Becc) Bailey (Manila palm), Chrysalidocarpus lutescens Wendl (Areca palm), and Caryota urens (Fishtail palm). Treatments were seed immersion in water or gibberellic acid 3 (GA3) solution for 72 hours, immersion in concentrated nitric acid for 5 minutes, or cracking of the seed coat. Rate and percentage of emergence 90 days after treatment were measured. The best results for Roystonea, Phoenix, Veitchia, Caryota, and Chrysalidocarpus were obtained soaking the seeds in water or a 200-ppm gibberellic acid solution. Nitric acid and seed coat cracking significantly reduced the germination percentage in all the species, except Acrocomia guisqueyana and Sabal umbraculifera. Seeds of Acrocomia did not germinate as a response to any of the treatments tested. Sabal seeds germinated only after coat cracking or nitric acid treatment.

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Bielinski M. Santos and Jose P. Morales-Payan

Trials were conducted under controlled conditions to determine the tolerance of young papaya plants (15 cm tall) to postemergence herbicides. Herbicides used were paraquat (1.68 Kg ai/Ha), MSMA (2.24 Kg ai/Ha), 2,4-D (4.26 Kg ai/Ha), bromoxynil (0.28 Kg ai/Ha), cyanazine (1.12 Kg ai/Ha), dimethenamid (1.12 Kg ai/Ha), endothal (0.56 Kg ai/Ha), imazameth (0.067 Kg ai/Ha), imazethapyr (0.028 Kg ai/Ha) lactofen (0.12 Kg ai/Ha), oxyfluorfen (0.03 Kg ai/Ha), acifluorfen (0.28 Kg ai/Ha), atrazine (2.24 Kg ai/Ha), and bentazon (1.12 Kg ai/Ha) as well as the untreated control. Atrazine, bentazon, cyanazine, imazemeth, imazethapyr, and dimethenamid did not cause phytotoxicity at the rates used and were equal to the untreated control. Other herbicides caused severe injuries followed by total death at 10 days after treatment.

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Bielinski M. Santos and Jose Pablo Morales-Payan

Greenhouse experiments were carried out to determine the tolerance of two radish cultivars to soil-applied B, Mo, and Zn. Sources used were boric acid (0, 54, 108, 216, 324, and 432 ppm), molybdic acid (0, 1.4, 2.8, 5.6, 8.5, and 11.3 ppm), and zinc sulfate (0, 40, 80, 160, 240, and 360 ppm) applied at planting in addition to the control. Plants were grown in plastic containers of 1.5 L, filled with a potting medium composed of 50% vermiculite, 30% sphagnum peat, and 20% perlite. Treatments were arranged within a randomized complete block design with six replications. Fresh weight of commercial roots was not affected by Mo or Zn applications in either cultivar. However, B applications decreased root fresh weight as rate increased. These results suggest that these radish cultivars perform well in a relatively wide range of Mo and Zn application rates, whereas tolerance to B appears to be low.

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Jose Pablo Morales-Payan and Bielinski M. Santos

Field experiments were conducted in the Dominican Republic to determine the effect of combinations of N with folcysteine and gibberellic acid 3 on cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) yield. Nitrogen levels (0, 36, 55, 73, 91 kg·ha–1) in soil application at sowing were combined with foliar spray of the biostimulant folcysteine or gibberellic acid (0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 ppm) 15 days after emergence. Treatments were applied in a factorial arrangement on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Fresh weight of the aerial part of the plants was determined 40 days after emergence. No significant difference was found due to folcysteine treatment. Nitrogen had a significant effect, with optimal yield at 55 kg·ha–1. Significant interaction was detected for the combinations of gibberellic acid and N, with yield increasing as the rate of the two factors increased.