Search Results

You are looking at 11 - 20 of 36 items for :

  • Author or Editor: Beiquan Mou x
  • HortScience x
Clear All Modify Search
Authors: and

Lettuce is one of the most commonly used salad vegetables and considered to be a relatively salt-sensitive crop. Salinity is a major constraint to crop production in all important lettuce growing regions of the United States, and the water quality problem is exacerbated by climate change. To identify salt-tolerant lettuce genotypes, 178 cultivars and germplasm accessions (56 butterhead, 39 crisphead, 35 romaine, 33 leaf, and 15 wild types) were selected from a preliminary screening of more than 3800 genotypes, and tested for salinity tolerance in sand cultures under greenhouse conditions. Plants were grown in Hoagland nutrient solution, either with or without 30/15 mm NaCl/CaCl2, and leaf fresh and dry mass (FM and DM), chlorophyll index, and maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) were measured 4 weeks after plants were transplanted. Generally, salinity decreased lettuce shoot FM and DM, increased DM/FM ratio and chlorophyll index, and had no effect on Fv/Fm. Some lettuce varieties showed salt tolerance (less than 15% reduction in FM), such as PI 342515, PI 358020c, ‘Morgana’, ‘Amerika’ (butterhead), ‘Laura’ (crisphead), PI 289023, PI 273577, PI 278066, PI 177425 (romaine), PI 171676a, PI 177423, PI 342477, and PI 358018b (leaf). The results indicate that lettuce genotypes differ greatly in their salt sensitivity, which could be useful for growers to choose cultivars and for breeders to improve lettuce adaptation to salinity stress.

Free access
Authors: and

Thermoinhibition of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seed germination is a common problem associated with lettuce production. Depending on lettuce cultivars, seed germination may be inhibited when temperatures exceed 28 °C. The delay or inhibition of seed germination at high temperatures may reduce seedling emergence and stand establishment of lettuce in the field, leading to a reduction in economic yield. To identify heat-tolerant lettuce genotypes, lettuce varieties and germplasm accessions were screened for the ability to germinate under high-temperature stress. Twenty-four to 26 genotypes were selected from each lettuce types (crisphead, romaine, butterhead, loose leaf, and wild species) and their seeds were placed in petri dishes to test their ability to germinate at high temperatures (29 and 34 °C) as compared with controls at 24 °C. Some lettuce genotypes showed thermotolerance to 34 °C (less than 20% reduction in germination) such as Elizabeth, PI 342533, PI 358025, Florida Buttercrisp, Kordaat, Corsair, FL 50105, PRO 425, PI 278070, Noemie, Picarde, Gaillarde, L. serriola (PI 491112, UC96US23, PI 491147), L. virosa (PI 274378 D), L. saligna (PI 491159), and primitive (PI 187238 A, PI 289063 C). The germination rates were consistent with the germination percentage at the high temperatures. Seed germination in the field was very low and positively correlated with seed germination at 29 and 34 °C. The highest field germination percentages (greater than 40%) were observed in Belluro, Mantilia, Mid Queen, Headmaster, PRO 874, PRO 425, FL 50105, Corsair, Romaine SSC 1148, Romaine Romea, Green Forest, Grenadier, FL 43007, Squadron, Xena, Noemie, Green Wave, Picarde, and Red Giant. The results of this study indicated that lettuce genotypes differ greatly in their ability to germinate at high temperatures as determined by the percentages and the rates of germination. Our research indicates that thermoinsensitive varieties could be used to expand lettuce production seasons in warm and low land cost areas and reduce the need for seed priming, lowering the production costs. The information may also be useful for growers to better choose cultivars for warm environments and for lettuce breeders to improve the crop for adaptation to global warming and climate change.

Free access
Authors: and

The use of vermicompost to improve soil fertility and enhance crop yield has gained considerable momentum due to its contribution to agroecological sustainability. Short-term (35 days after transplanting) effects of vermicompost, applied either as a soil amendment (5% and 10%, v/v) or a drench (40 mL of vermicompost extract at 0, 14, 21, and 28 days after transplanting), on soil properties and spinach plants (Spinacia oleracea L.) were evaluated in a greenhouse. After harvesting, the amendments left high residual levels of nutrients, organic matter and carbon, and increased soil cation exchange capacity (CEC) and water-holding capacity (WHC). Drench treatment of unamended soil increased soil nutrients, CEC, and WHC. All vermicompost treatments, especially amendment at 10% rate, increased leaf number, area, fresh and dry weight (FW and DW), shoot FW and DW, root DW, and water use efficiency (WUE). Vermicompost increased leaf chlorophyll content, and photochemical efficiency, yield, and electron transport rate (ETR) of mature leaves, as well as increased leaf succulence, and carotenoid, protein, and amino acid content. Vermicompost soil amendment reduced phenolics and flavonoids, leading to lower antioxidant capacity, whereas drench treatment only decreased betacyanin content. Vermicompost improved soil fertility, prompted leaf production, delayed leaf senescence, and enhanced growth of spinach. It also favorably influenced spinach quality by increasing leaf succulence and carotenoid, protein, and amino acids content, although it, as soil amendment, reduced flavonoid content leading to low antioxidant capacity.

Free access
Authors: and

Compost is increasingly used in horticultural crop production as soil conditioner and fertilizer because of its contribution to agriculture sustainability. The short-term (35 days after transplanting) effects of composted cattle manure or cotton burr on growth, physiology, and phytochemical of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) were evaluated in a greenhouse. Composted cattle manure at 5% or 10% mix rate (5Ca or 10Ca) greatly enhanced spinach growth as indicated by increased leaf number, area, fresh and dry weights (FW and DW), shoot FW and DW, and root DW. They also increased water use efficiency (WUE) and shoot:root ratio, and improved the photochemistry of mature leaves. Chlorophyll content also increased under 10Ca treatment. Composted cotton burr also improved spinach growth but only at 10% amendments (10Co), and was less efficient than composted cattle manure. Specific leaf area (SLA) decreased and succulence increased under all compost amendment indicating that compost could improve spinach quality. All soil amendments reduced the content of total phenolic and anthocyanin, while only 10Co and 5Ca treatments decreased flavonoid content and total antioxidant capacity. The content of carotenoid and protein increased in 10Ca treatment and amino acid content increased under both 5Ca and 10Ca treatments. The results indicated that compost, especially composted cattle manure mixed at 10%, improved spinach production and quality, and with proper application rate enhanced nutritional value by increasing carotenoid, protein, and amino acid contents while having little effect on total antioxidant capacity.

Free access

Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is an essential salad crop in the American diet. Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) are required for successful lettuce production and can influence lettuce quality. The objective of the study was to evaluate changes in nutritional composition of romaine (`Green Tower') and iceberg (`Sharp Shooter') lettuce in responses to N, P and K fertilization during fall production in Salinas, Calif. Sixteen treatment combinations of fertilizer were selected to provide a range of treatments. N was applied at 0, 112, 225, and 338 kg·ha-1 as ammonium nitrate; P was applied at 0, 112, and 225 kg/ha as super phosphate; and K was applied at 0 and 112 kg·ha-1 as muriate of potash. Nutritional content of fresh tissue of two types of lettuce was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Among the parameters analyzed were lutein, beta-carotene, chlorophyll a, and chlorophyll b. Yield was increased with increasing N fertilizer level, but was not affected by P or K application rates. The best post harvest quality, however, was at moderate P application rate. Increasing the N and P rates gradually increased glucose content in lettuce but decreased the shelf life. Significant differences between the two types of lettuce were found in chlorophyll, lutein and beta-carotene content. No significant correlations were found between soil fertilizer application levels and nutritional content of lettuce. However, the ratio of chlorophyll a and b were greater with the increase of fertilizer rate. Nutritional composition including vitamin C will be presented.

Free access

Leafminer (Liriomyza spp.) is a major insect pest of many important agricultural crops including lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). The goals of this study were to evaluate lettuce genotypes for resistance to leafminers and to estimate the heritabilities of leafminer-resistant traits in the field, to examine the association among different resistant traits, and to study the mechanism of leafminer resistance in lettuce. Seventy-eight lettuce accessions and 232 F2 plants of crosses were evaluated for leafminer stings and the production of pupae and flies in the field in 2001 and 2002, and resistant genotypes were subjected to no-choice test. Wild species (Lactuca serriola L., L. saligna L., and L. virosa L.) had significantly fewer stings than cultivated lettuces. Among cultivated lettuces, sting densities were lowest on leaf lettuce and highest on romaine types. The sting results from the field were highly correlated with the results from insect cages (r = 0.770 and 0.756 for 2001 and 2002 tests, respectively), suggesting that a cage test can be used to screen for resistance in the field. Broad-sense heritability estimates for stings per unit leaf area in the field were 81.6% and 67.4% for 2001 and 2002 tests, respectively. The number of pupae produced per plant or per leaf was moderately correlated with sting density but was not correlated with leaf weight. Results suggest that both antixenosis and antibiosis exist in lettuce germplasm and resistant genotypes from choice tests remain resistant under no-choice conditions. These findings suggest that genetic improvement of cultivated lettuce for leafminer resistance is feasible.

Free access
Authors: and

Leafminer (Liriomyza langei Frick) is a major insect pest of many important agricultural crops including lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). The goals of this study were to evaluate lettuce genotypes for resistance to leafminer and to estimate heritabilities of three leafminer-resistant traits. Forty-six lettuce genotypes were evaluated in two tests in insect cages. Wild species (Lactuca serriola L., Lactuca saligna L., and Lactuca virosa L.) had significantly fewer leafminer stings than cultivated lettuce (L. sativa) in both tests. PI 509525 (L. saligna) had few leafminer stings and no flies emerged. Leaf (leaf and romaine) lettuce also showed significantly less stings than head (crisphead and butterhead) types, while differences between leaf and romaine lettuces, and between crisphead and butterhead types were nonsignificant. Broad-sense heritability for number of stings per unit leaf area was relatively high, averaging 65% over the two tests. Heritabilities for egg-hatching period and flies per plant were 10% and 15%, respectively. Stings per unit leaf area from the two tests were highly correlated (r = 0.828), suggesting that resistance was stable over different plant ages and against different pressures of leafminer. These results suggest that genetic improvement of cultivated lettuce for leafminer resistance is feasible.

Free access