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Open access

Muhammet A. Gündeşli

Open access

Xiaotao Ding, Liyao Yu, Yuping Jiang, Shaojun Yang, Lizhong He, Qiang Zhou, Jizhu Yu and Danfeng Huang

Changes in leaf length, width, area, weight, chlorophyll and carotenoids contents, and photosynthetic variables with different leaf positions were investigated in fruit cucumber. Plants were grown on rockwool slabs in an environmentally controlled greenhouse and irrigated by drip fertigation. Leaf measurements were conducted from the first to the 15th leaf (the oldest to the youngest). The results showed that fresh weight per unit leaf area decreased from the second to the 15th leaf. Changes in cucumber leaf length, width, and area followed quadratic models from the first to the 15th leaf. The quadratic models of leaf length, width, and area fit the measurements well, with R 2 values of 0.925, 0.951, and 0.955, respectively. The leaf chlorophyll a and b and carotenoid contents increased from the oldest leaf (first leaf) to the youngest leaf and decreased after reaching the highest values. Changes in the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) also followed the quadratic model from the first to the 15th leaf, with R 2 values of 0.975. The leaf transpiration rate (Tr) increased from the first to the 14th leaf. Our results revealed patterns in leaf growth and photosynthetic changes at different leaf positions in fruit cucumber and improved our understanding of the growth and development of fruit cucumber in the greenhouse production system.

Open access

Alyssa R. Tarrant, Daniel C. Brainard and Zachary D. Hayden

Growing a cover crop living mulch between plastic-mulched beds may reduce soil erosion while providing other agroecosystem services. However, information regarding the relative differences among living mulch species to maximize services and minimize competition for nutrients and water in adjacent plastic-mulched beds is limited. A 2-year experiment in Michigan evaluated nine living mulch species for biomass production, in-season weed suppression, and potential for cash crop competition. Species included three warm season grasses {Italian ryegrass [Lolium perenne L. ssp. multiflorum (Lam.) Husnot], teff [Eragrostis tef (Zuccagni) Trotter, and sudangrass [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench ssp. drummondii (Nees ex Steud.) de Wet & Harlan]}; three cool season grasses [barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), rye (Secale cereale L.), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)]; and three clover species grown in combination with rye {Dutch white clover (Trifolium repens L.), New Zealand white clover (T. repens L.) and yellow blossom sweet clover [Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam.]}. Although all living mulch treatments significantly reduced in-season weed biomass relative to the weedy control in 2018, weeds were generally a dominant component of total biomass in all living mulch treatments other than teff. Weed biomass was negatively correlated with living mulch biomass, and teff exhibited both the greatest biomass and weed suppression in both years. However, despite spatial and physical separation, all living mulches demonstrated the potential to compete with a cash crop by reducing soil inorganic nitrogen and moisture levels in adjacent plastic mulch–covered beds. Growers interested in integrating living mulches into plasticulture systems must consider desired benefits such as enhanced weed suppression, soil quality, and harvesting conditions alongside potential risks to cash crop yields.

Open access

Celina Gómez and Juan Jiménez

Numerous studies have evaluated the effect of high-energy radiation as means to increase nutritional quality of lettuce (Lactuca sativa). However, most research has focused on providing constant radiation quality or quantity throughout the production cycle, which typically results in yield reductions or increases in production costs. End-of-production (EOP) radiation is a cost-effective, preharvest practice that can allow growers to manipulate product quality and thus increase market value of lettuce without negatively affecting plant growth. The objective of this study was to quantify and compare growth and accumulation of secondary metabolites from ‘Rouxaï RZ’ and ‘Codex RZ’ red-leaf lettuce grown indoors and exposed to different strategies of EOP high-energy radiation. Plants were grown for 24 days under an average daily light integral (DLI) of 15.8 mol·m‒2·d‒1 (220 µmol·m‒2·s‒1 for 20 h·d−1) using red:blue light-emitting diode (LED) lamps. Four days before harvest (36 days after sowing), plants were exposed to one of three EOP treatments added to red:blue LEDs: 1) ultraviolet-A (EOP-ultraviolet); 2) high blue (EOP-B); or 3) high-intensity (EOP-H) radiation. A fourth treatment was included as a control, with no EOP. Except for EOP-H, all treatments provided a DLI of 15.8 mol·m‒2·d‒1; EOP-H provided a DLI of 31.7 mol·m‒2·d‒1. No treatment differences were measured for shoot fresh weight (FW) of ‘Rouxaï RZ’ but shoot FW of ‘Codex RZ’ was negatively affected by EOP radiation, indicating potential changes in lettuce yield from applying EOP high-energy radiation during active plant growth. In general, EOP treatments did not affect total phenolic content and total carotenoid concentration of plants, but anthocyanin content and antioxidant capacity were positively influenced by EOP-B and EOP-H, whereas EOP-ultraviolet resulted in similar nutritional quality to control. Findings from this study indicate that EOP high-energy radiation, especially EOP-B, has significant potential to improve the nutritional quality of red-leaf lettuce grown in controlled environments.

Open access

Nuananong Purente, Bin Chen, Xiaowei Liu, Yunwei Zhou and Miao He

Mutation breeding is considered to be economic and efficient in plant improvement, and the use of chemical mutagens such as ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) can potentially address plant breeding challenges. The aim of this study was to induce morphological mutants in C. indicum var. aromaticum using EMS treatments with different doses, and to analyze the morphological and physiological traits of obtained mutants in expectation of finding favorable mutants. Results revealed significant effects of EMS doses on seed germination. The sample germination rate significantly decreased with increasing of EMS doses. The obtained morphological mutants were two viable types, containing leaf and stem mutants. Overall leaf size was significantly larger as a result of EMS treatments. And the height of mutant plants was significantly higher. Anatomical characteristics exhibited changes in both leaves and stems of the mutant plants. The puncture strength of the bent stem from the mutant plants was low, with weak penetration resistance. The total lignin and cellulose contents of mutant plants stem decreased significantly as a result of the EMS treatments. These results demonstrate the efficiency of EMS to induce mutations in C. indicum var. aromaticum, and this method can be useful in the future to assist breeding of this plant.

Open access

Baoxin Chang, Benjamin Wherley, Jacqueline Aitkenhead-Peterson, Nadezda Ojeda, Charles Fontanier and Philip Dwyer

Wetting agents have been widely used in the turf industry for ameliorating hydrophobic soil conditions and improving water use efficiency. However, limited information is available regarding potential benefits of wetting agents on fine textured soil lawns where wettable soils are commonly found, because most prior studies have been conducted in sand-based turf systems. This 2-year field study evaluated the potential for wetting agents to improve turf quality, as well as to reduce runoff losses of water and nutrients from st. augustinegrass [Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze] lawns. Over two seasons, turfgrass quality, percent green cover, and soil moisture in plots were evaluated in response to wetting agent and fertilizer treatments. During precipitation events, total runoff volumes were measured, as well as total export of nutrients including NO3-N, NH4-N, total dissolved N, dissolved organic N, dissolved organic C, and PO4-P. No runoff was detected from any treatments when precipitation was less than 13 mm. St. augustinegrass turfgrass quality and soil moisture were slightly improved by wetting agent and fertilizer treatments during the study, but no significant effects of either of the treatments were found on runoff volumes or nutrient exports. Although turf was managed under deficit irrigation levels of 0.3 × reference evapotranspiration, irrigation events were not withheld due to rainfall, and thus, little to no drought stress was observed during the study.

Open access

Uttara Samarakoon, Jack Palmer, Peter Ling and James Altland

Yield reduction resulting from high temperatures and tipburn are common issues during the summer for hydroponically grown lettuce using the nutrient–film technique (NFT). We investigated the yield and degree of tipburn of lettuce ‘Red Butter’, ‘Green Butter’, and ‘Red Oakleaf’ of the Salanova® series under different-solution electrical conductivity (EC) and pH levels. We also quantified the effect of foliar spray application of calcium chloride (CaCl2) on the yield and degree of tipburn using the lettuce cultivar Green Butter. For the EC experiment, the plants were grown at four EC levels (1.4, 1.6, 1.8, or 2.0 mS·cm–1) and a constant pH of 5.8. For the pH experiment, the plants were grown at and four pH levels (5.8, 6.0, 6.2, or 6.4) and a constant EC of 1.8 mS·cm–1. For the foliar spray experiment, CaCl2 was applied 1 week after transplanting into NFT channels at three different concentrations: 0, 200, 400, or 800 mg·L calcium (Ca). During the EC trial, the maximum yields were observed at or more than 1.8 mS·cm–1 for ‘Green Butter’ (263 ± 14 g/head) and ‘Red Butter’ (202 ± 8 g), and more than 1.6 mS·cm–1 for ‘Red Oakleaf’ (183 ± 6 g). The yield of ‘Green Butter’ was 75 g less at 1.4 mS·cm–1 compared with 1.8 mS·cm–1. Tipburn symptoms were less at 1.4 mS·cm–1 for ‘Green Butter’ whereas other cultivars were not highly susceptible. In pH trials, the maximum yield for all cultivars was found at pH 6.0 and 6.2. There were no differences in tipburn symptoms among all pH levels. The foliar spray treatment, twice a week at 400 or 800 mg·L–1 Ca, provided improved tipburn control, as the tipburn symptoms were minimal and the impact on yield was minor compared with reducing EC. This series of experiments found evidence in proper EC and pH management for optimum yield and tipburn control in NFT lettuce grown in summer conditions.

Open access

Michele L. Crawford, Paula S. Williamson, Tina M. Waliczek, David E. Lemke and Thomas B. Hardy

As urbanization and urban sprawl increases, habitat for native flora and fauna often becomes threatened. Reestablishing wildlife habitats within designed landscapes has become increasingly popular with horticultural consumers, who are becoming more aware of the benefits of using native plants and the threats of invasive species. Texas wild rice (Zizania texana Hitchc.) is a federally endangered aquatic plant known to occur only in the San Marcos River, Hays County, TX. The objective of this study was to experimentally test the impact of light availability on the vegetative growth of Texas wild rice (TWR) ex situ. The effect of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was tested by establishing treatment and control groups of plants in a river raceway located on the campus of Texas State University, San Marcos, TX. At the onset of the experiment, baseline growth data were collected on a random sample of 15 plants to determine starting conditions. The 75 plants within the control and treatment groups were also randomly selected. Two sequential experimental trials were designed involving the same treatment of PAR reductions with 15 TWR plants in the control group (100% of ambient PAR conditions) and 15 within each of four experimental treatment units. Treatments included a reduction in ambient light values at each of the following rates: PAR reduced by 10% (90% ambient light), 20% (80% ambient light), 40% (60% ambient light), and 80% (20% ambient light). Results of the study indicated high shade areas contained reduced areal coverage or complete lack of TWR. There was a significant decrease in both above and below ground biomass, with an 80% reduction in available PAR (20% available ambient light), and other growth parameters of TWR were negatively impacted by reductions in PAR greater than 40% (60% ambient light availability) during the short-term early establishment growth period. Therefore, light availability is a critical environmental factor that must be given consideration when deciding areas of the river to plant TWR for population augmentation.

Open access

Yun Kong, Xiangyue Kong and Youbin Zheng

Nondestructive estimation of individual shoot fresh weight (FW) from its measurable morphological traits is useful for a wide variety of purposes in pea shoot production. To predict individual shoot FW, nine regression models in total were developed, including two power models using stem diameter (SMD) or stem length (SML) as a variable, and seven linear models using part or all the following variables: SMD, SML, leaflet length (LL), leaflet width (LW), stipule length (SEL), and stipule width (SEW). Among the nine models, the 6-variable linear equation had the highest coefficient of determination, R 2 = 0.92, indicating it is most effective at explaining the variation in FW. The linear equations including only one variable, SMD or SML, were equally the least effective as nonlinear equations (i.e., power models). This finding suggests that there was a linear rather than nonlinear relationship between FW and the morphological variables. During stepwise regression, SEW and LW together were first removed from the 6-variable linear models without reducing the R 2, and then SEL, SMD, SML were further removed one-by-one, which reduced the R 2 from 0.92 to 0.90, 0.85, and 0.71, respectively. The result suggests that SMD, SML, SEL, and LL were the most important four predictor variables for multivariable linear regression models to estimate FW, an idea that was also supported by path analysis. For the four linear models with 1–4 predictor variables from stepwise regression, the prediction accuracy of FW was evaluated based on the agreement between the predicted and measured values using another independent dataset. The 4- and 3-variable linear models (i.e., FW = −1.437 + 0.276 SMD + 0.010 SML + 0.022 LL + 0.013 SEL and FW = −1.383 + 0.308 SMD + 0.011 SML + 0.030 LL, respectively) were selected for their more accurate prediction than 1- and 2-variable linear models and relatively simpler forms than a 6-variable linear model. Although the prediction accuracy can be potentially affected by air temperature, light conditions, and harvesting time, the multilinear regression model is an effective approach for estimating fresh weight of individual pea shoots using its measurable morphological traits.

Open access

Qirui Cui, Haizheng Xiong, Yufeng Yufeng, Stephen Eaton, Sora Imamura, Jossie Santamaria, Waltram Ravelombola, Richard Esten Mason, Lisa Wood, Leandro Angel Mozzoni and Ainong Shi

Cowpea [Vigna unguiculate (L.) Walp.] is not only a healthy, nutritious, and versatile leguminous crop; it also has a relatively high adaptation to drought. Research has shown that cowpea lines have a high tolerance to drought, and many of them can survive more than 40 days under scorching and dry conditions. The cowpea (Southern pea) breeding program at the University of Arkansas has been active for more than 50 years and has produced more than 1000 advanced breeding lines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the drought-tolerant ability in Arkansas cowpea lines and use the drought-tolerant lines in cowpea production or as parents in cowpea breeding. A total of 36 University of Arkansas breeding lines were used to screen drought tolerance at the seedling stage in this study. The experiment was conducted in the greenhouse using a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with two replicates, organized in a split-plot manner, where the drought treatment (drought and nondrought stress) as the main plot and the cowpea genotypes as the subplot. Drought stress was applied for 4 weeks, and three drought-tolerant–related traits were collected and analyzed. Results showed that cowpea breeding lines: ‘17-61’, ‘17-86’, ‘Early Scarlet’, and ‘ARBlackeye #1’ were found to be drought tolerant.