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Rayane Barcelos Bisi, Rafael Pio, Daniela da Hora Farias, Guilherme Locatelli, Caio Morais de Alcântara Barbosa, and Welison Andrade Pereira

subtropical regions ( Bettiol Neto et al., 2014 ). The fact that no pollinizer cultivars have been reported for these hybrids in subtropical regions might be the reason for their low effective fruiting. Most pear tree cultivars have gametophytic self

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Steve McNamara, Kathy Zuzek, Nancy Rose, Harold Pellett, and Stan C. Hokanson

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Wanploy Jinagool, Lia Lamacque, Marine Delmas, Sylvain Delzon, Hervé Cochard, and Stéphane Herbette

Drought-tolerance selection is a current challenge for breeding programs to ensure agrosystem resilience, particularly with intensity and frequency of drought increasing worldwide. In tree species, xylem vulnerability to cavitation is among the most important traits on which drought-induced mortality depends. It can be rapidly evaluated, enabling large-scale screening for drought resistance. Genetic variability and phenotypic plasticity for this trait have been studied in natural populations, but not yet for cultivated tree species. In this work, the genetic variability in xylem vulnerability to cavitation of six Persian walnuts (Juglans regia L.), six hybrid walnuts (J. regia × Juglans nigra), and seven walnut species was investigated. In the first step, the method for measuring xylem vulnerability to cavitation using the “Cavitron” centrifuge technique was improved on walnut samples to obtain more accurate results. The Cavitron technique was found well suited to assessing xylem vulnerability to cavitation on this species using a 0.38 m rotor, which is large enough to analyze samples with intact vessels. Despite differences in wood anatomical traits, xylem vulnerability to cavitation among the Persian walnuts studied was similar. Very narrow variations in xylem vulnerability to cavitation were also found among hybrid walnuts. Only slight differences were observed on comparing species among which some have shown differences in various traits. These results suggest uniform selection, leading to canalization in cavitation resistance for cultivated Juglans.

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Paul Kron, Brian C. Husband, Peter G. Kevan, and Svenja Belaoussoff

Knowledge of pollen dispersal is essential for maximizing cross-fertilization in apples (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) and achieving optimal orchard design. Using allozyme markers, we examined dispersal of pollen from trees of a single cultivar (`Idared') throughout two apple orchards. In each orchard, the percentage of seeds sired by `Idared' was estimated for trees sampled at regular intervals along three transects, extending up to 18 rows (86 m) from the closest donor trees. The percentage of seed sired by `Idared' pollen ranged from 76% to 1% of seed sampled for a row. No differences in pollen dispersal were found among transects, despite differences in proximity to the bee colonies. Variation in `Idared' siring success was attributable to the cultivar of the fruit-bearing trees as well as their distance to the nearest `Idared' tree. Cultivar effects were associated with differences in flowering overlap, but not cross-compatibility with the pollenizer. Furthermore, flowering overlap was a good predictor of siring success only when the flowering times of competing pollenizer cultivars were also considered. The implications for orchard design are discussed.

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Susan Pell and David Nial

Kelly Green Trees and goes under the trademark name Lois Adams ™ . This tree cultivar is moderately fast growing to a mature height of 5–8 m, drought and heat tolerant, adaptable to poor soils, and cold hardy to Zone 7. A specimen standard, including

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Guilherme Locatelli, Rafael Pio, Rayane Barcelos Bisi, Filipe Bittencourt Machado de Souza, Mariana Thereza Rodrigues Viana, Daniela da Hora Farias, Evaristo Mauro de Castro, and Carolina Ruiz Zambon

apple tree cultivars as estimated during the precipitation season (February; A ) and water deficit season (September; B ) and obtained using the hierarchical unweighted pair-group method using an arithmetic mean method. Fig. 5. Principal component

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Imen Rekik, Amelia Salimonti, Naziha Grati Kamoun, Innocenzo Muzzalupo, Oliver Lepais, Sophie Gerber, Enzo Perri, and Ahmed Rebai

cultivars and second to address the problem of synonymy and homonymy in major cultivars. Materials and Methods Plant materials. Twenty Tunisian olive tree cultivars were selected from different geographical regions of the country from north to

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Ralph Scorza, Michel Ravelonandro, Ann Callahan, Ioan Zagrai, Jaroslav Polak, Tadeuz Malinowski, Mariano Cambra, Laurene Levy, Vern Damsteegt, Boris Krška, John Cordts, Dennis Gonsalves, and Chris Dardick

genetically engineered fruit-tree cultivar Food Nutr. Sci. 4 45 49 Ravelonandro, M. Scorza, R. Hily, J.M. Briard, P. 2014 The efficiency of RNA interference for conferring stable resistance to Plum pox virus Plant Cell Tiss. Organ Cult. 118 347 356 Scorza, R

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Timothy A. Rinehart, Ned C. Edwards, and James M. Spiers

children, and the possibility of invasiveness. In four years of observations, peak flowering for ‘Anna Bella’ occurs 4 weeks later when compared with popular tung tree cultivars for tung oil production such as ‘Folsom’ and ‘Isabel’. ‘Anna Bella’ is the