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Jinwook Lee, James P. Mattheis, and David R. Rudell

). ‘Royal Gala’ apples are also susceptible to the development of flesh breakdown during and after cold storage ( Lee et al., 2013 ). However, flesh breakdown development can be delayed following fruit exposure to 1-MCP ( Lee et al., 2013 ). Nonetheless, 1

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Jinwook Lee, James P. Mattheis, and David R. Rudell

Royal Gala’ [ Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] is one of the major apple cultivars produced worldwide. In North America, production is projected to continue to increase ( U.S. Apple Association, 2010 ). The unique

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Ben van Hooijdonk, David Woolley, Ian Warrington, and Stuart Tustin

if their concentrations related to branching of the scion. Rates of IAA diffusing from the apex of ‘Royal Gala’ primary shoots on different size-controlling rootstocks were also measured to further understand possible shoot–root–shoot relationships

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Valeria Sigal Escalada and Douglas D. Archbold

assess the effects of AVG plus 1-MCP on ‘Royal Gala’ apple aroma volatile production at harvest and after short-term cold storage. Materials and Methods Treatments and harvest. In 2004 and 2005, eight trees of ‘Royal Gala/M7a’, planted in

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Jinwook Lee, James P. Mattheis, and David R. Rudell

treated fruit may be associated with reduced fresh weight loss and ripening during cold storage ( Bai et al., 2005 ; Fan et al., 1999 ). The incidence of ‘Royal Gala’ flesh breakdown increases with increased fruit size but flesh breakdown severity is

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Yi hu Dong, Deepali Mitra, Arend Kootstra, Carolyn Lister, and Jane Lancaster

The red color of Royal Gala apple (Malus domestics Borkh.) skin increased in intensity following irradiation with ultraviolet (UV) and white light. The enhanced red apple color was due to an increase in anthocyanin concentration and the increase was dose dependent. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the composition of flavonoids in UV treated and natural red colored apple skins was similar. The red apple skin color further increased after storage at 4C in the dark. During the course of irradiation the enzymatic activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and chalcone isomerase (CHI) increased 10-to 20-fold. Northern analysis showed an increase in PAL transcripts during the irradiation treatment, suggesting that the increase in PAL enzymatic activity was due to de novo synthesis of the enzyme in apple skin cells.

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Peter M. Hirst and Wendy M. Cashmore

Spurs were collected periodically throughout three growing seasons from the 1-year-old section of wood of `Royal Gala' trees growing in New Zealand. Three classes of spurs were sampled: purely vegetative spurs, those that flowered but did not carry fruit, and spurs on which a single fruit was borne. The bourse bud, in which flowers may form for the following year's crop, was dissected and bud appendages classified and counted. In addition, axillary buds from current-season shoots were sampled and dissected. Over the period 50–200 days after full bloom, the number of appendages in buds on vegetative spurs increased from ≈14 to 22, whereas the increase in buds on fruiting spurs was 14 to 20. In contrast, axillary bud appendage numbers increased from ≈11 to 14 over this period. By the end of the growing season, flowers were evident in a high proportion of buds of all classes. The critical appendage number at which the change from a vegetative to floral status became visible was ≈18 for spurs on 1-year-old wood, but 13 for axillary buds. The time at which flowers were able to form varied among years. The degree of flower differentiation that occurred prior to leaf fall was highest in vegetative buds and was reduced by flowering and fruiting, and was lowest in axillary buds.

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Victor Garcia de Cortazar and Gabino Reginato

Three different parameters were tested to estimate yield in `Royal Gala' apples. These are: a) parameters related to crop load—fruits per tree, fruits per cm2 of branch cross-sectional area, and fruits per hectare; b) parameters related with PFD interception: average fraction of PFD intercepted, total PFD intercepted during the season; and c) combination of the parameters a) and b). The data set was composed of measurements of PFD interception once a month and of yield components on various commercial apple orchards of the variety `Royal Gala' in the central zone of Chile between 2003 and 2006. The orchards were managed for high production, but there were differences of plantation distance, age, and size between them. Also, inside the orchard there were differences between trees. For the trees studied, there were variations of a factor of 10 for crop load, branch cross-sectional area, and tree size estimated as fractional interception of PFD at the beginning of the season. In spite of the big differences between trees, simple equations were fitted between yield and load parameters with coefficients of determination >0.95. Research funded by FONDECYT-Chile grant 1930695.

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Stephen C. Myers, Steven McArtney, Stuart Tustin, Wendy Cashmore, and Richard Mangin

Foliar applications of monocarbamide dihydrogensulfate (D-88, Unocal Chemicals Division) at rates of 0, 2.5 ml/1, 3.75 ml/1 or 5.0 ml/1 were made to mature apple trees of “Fuji”, “Royal Gala” or “Braeburn” on MM106 root-stock. Treatments were applied dilute when spurs were at 95% full bloom. D-88 was applied at 5.0 ml/1 to “Fuji” at three different times during the day (0730, 1400 or 1810) with and without surfactant in an attempt to evaluate the effect of different atmospheric and drying conditions. Fruit set (number of fruit per 100 flower clusters) was determined after natural fruit drop.

D-88 had no effect on fruit set of “Royal Gala” or “Braeburn”. There was a linear effect between D-88 rate and fruit set on “Fuji”, with the 5.0 ml/1 rate reducing set by 30%. D-88 affected the number of fruit at individual fruiting sites, most significantly the percentage of flower clusters setting 3 fruits decreasing with increasing rate. Timing and surfactant had no effect.

Fruit finish, mean fruit weight, seed number and soluble solids concentration were measured at harvest.

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F R Harker, C B Watkins, B A Cregoe, P L Brookfield, and W J Bramlage

The apple growing districts of New Zealand are spread across a wide range of latitudes. Differences in growing conditions associated with these various districts may influence the way fruit mature on the tree. In this study, the relationships between background colour and physiological maturity of Royal Gala apples have been compared in four major production areas. Royal Gala apples were strip picked from trees in three orchards during the commercial harvest period Hawkes Bay, Canterbury, Nelson and Otago. The maturity of these fruit was assessed, and fruit stored at 0°C for 12 weeks. Following removal from “storage, the quality of the fruit was assessed paying particular attention to -greasiness. Results from this trial indicate that the relationship between background colour and fruit maturity is not consistent. Indeed, the maturity of apples of a particular background colour may differ according to district and harvest date. Greasiness of fruit was related to harvest maturity in Hawkes Bay. However, fruit from Canterbury and Otago became severely greasy even when harvested at early maturities.