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Daniel G. Krueger Jr. and Bert T. Swanson

To increase root fibrosity, acorns of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were germinated and subjected to several radicle clipping (+/-) and K-IBA concentration treatments combintations prior to planting. Taproots and laterals ≥ 1 mm in diameter at the point of origin were counted. Low concentrations of K-IBA (0-4000 ppm) resulted in four root morphologies: 1) a single taproot and 3-6 laterals (no clipping/no K-IBA), 2) 4-5 taproots and 1-3 laterals (clipped only), 3) a single taproot and 5-12 laterals (not clipped/K-IBA) and 4) 6-12 taproots and 1-2 laterals. High concentrations of K-IBA (4000-10,000 ppm) `clipped' unclipped radicles resulting in root systems similiar to those clipped by hand. Stem height was unaffected by treatment. Radicle-clipping may increase stem caliper. K-IBA treatments may decrease root dry weight.

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Andrea L. Southworth and Michael A. Dirr

Stem cuttings from a prostrate clone of Cephalotaxus harringtonia (Forbes) K. Koch (Japanese plum yew) were taken monthly from Sept. 1994 through Aug. 1995, treated with K-IBA at 0 or 10,000 mg·liter–1, placed in a greenhouse under intermittent mist, and evaluated after 16 weeks. Cuttings taken from December to February and treated with K-IBA averaged 85% rooting, 10 roots per cutting, and a total root length of 35 cm. The next highest rooting percentages were for cuttings taken from March to May; poorest rooting occurred for cuttings taken from June to August and September to November, regardless of K-IBA application. Chemical name used: K-indole-3-butyric acid (K-IBA).

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Janine G. Haynes, John M. Smagula, and Paul E. Cappiello

Stem cuttings were harvested in April from four clones of containerized bunchberry(Cornus canadensis L.) forced in the greenhouse and in June from the same four clones growing in the field. April cuttings that had produced rhizomes by transplant time produced the greatest mean number and weight of shoots during the first growing season compared to April cuttings without rhizomes, June cuttings with rhizomes, or June cuttings without rhizomes. In a second study, cuttings and single-stem divisions were taken in July; divisions produced a greater mean number of shoots than did stem cuttings when compared at the end of Oct. A third study evaluated the effect of K-IBA application to lateral buds on subsequent rhizome production, and the effect of cutting node number (two vs. three nodes) on root or rhizome development. Treating lateral buds with K-IBA was not inhibitory to rhizome formation and elongation. Compared to two-node cuttings, three-node cuttings produced greater mean rootball size, rhizome number, and rhizome length; nearly twice as many of the three-node cuttings formed rhizomes as did two-node cuttings. A fourth study showed that cuttings rooted for 5 or 6 weeks in a mist enclosure generally exhibited greater shoot and rhizome production by the end of the first growing season than cuttings rooted for 8 or 9 weeks. This was despite the finding that cuttings rooted for longer durations (8 or 9 weeks) possessed larger rootballs and greater rhizome numbers at transplant time compared to cuttings rooted for shorter durations (5 to 6 weeks). Chemical name used: indole-3-butyric acid (K-IBA).

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Bryan J. Peterson, Gregory J.R. Melcher, Ailish K. Scott, Rebecca A. Tkacs, and Andrew J. Chase

date, substrate composition, wounding, and the concentration of applied potassium salt of K-IBA on rooting percentage and metrics of root system quality. Materials and methods Plant materials . We identified native populations of sweetgale, rhodora, and

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Darren J. Hayes and Bryan J. Peterson

that were treated with solutions varying in concentration of K-IBA and inserted into propagation media varying in their proportions of coarse perlite and milled peatmoss. The effects of these treatments were evaluated in both overhead mist and

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James R. Ault

Shoot proliferation cultures were established in vitro using flower-stem explants from two different interspecific hybrid plants of Liatris. Explants taken on two dates from field-grown plants were successfully established and axillary shoot growth promoted on a medium consisting of Murashige and Skoog basal salts and vitamins with 30 g·L-1 sucrose, 1.0 μm BA, and 7.0 g·L-1 agar, with a medium pH = 5.7. Initial explant contamination rates were significantly higher among explants collected later in the growing season. Addition of BA (1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0, or 16.0 μm) improved shoot formation compared to the control for both plants. Proliferation rates differed between the dates of establishment, the plants, and the BA treatments. Shoots rooted readily in medium without PGRs or with 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, or 8.0 μm K-IBA. Overall rooting was 88%. About 90% of the plants rooted in the presence of 1.0 μm K-IBA were successfully established in the greenhouse. Chemical names used: 6-benzyl adenine (BA); potassium salt of indole-3-butyric acid (K-IBA).

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Eugene K. Blythe, Jeff L. Sibley, Ken M. Tilt, and John M. Ruter

In five experiments, singlenode cuttings of `Red Cascade' miniature rose (Rosa) were treated with a basal quick-dip (prior to insertion into the rooting substrate) or sprayed to the drip point with a single foliar application (after insertion) of Dip `N Grow [indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) + 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA)], the potassium salt of indole-3-butyric acid (K-IBA), or the potassium salt of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (K-NAA); a single foliar spray application of Dip `N Grow with and without Kinetic surfactant; or multiple foliar spray applications of Dip `N Grow. Spray treatments were compared with their respective basal quick-dip controls {4920.4 μm [1000 mg·L-1 (ppm)] IBA + 2685.2 μm (500 mg·L-1) NAA, 4144.2 μm (1000 mg·L-1) K-IBA, or 4458.3 μm (1000 mg·L-1) K-NAA}. Cuttings sprayed with 0 to 246.0 μm (50 mg·L-1) IBA + 134.3 μm (25 mg·L-1) NAA, 0 to 207.2 μm (50 mg·L-1) K-IBA, or 0 to 222.9 μm (50 mg·L-1) K-NAA resulted in rooting percentages, total root length, percent rooted cuttings with shoots, and shoot length similar to or less than control cuttings. Exceptions were cuttings sprayed with 0 to 2.23 μm

(0.5 mg·L-1) K-NAA, which exhibited shoot length greater than the control cuttings. Addition of 1.0 mL·L-1 (1000 ppm) Kinetic organosilicone surfactant to spray treatments resulted in greater total root length and shoot length. Repeated sprays (daily up to seven consecutive days) had no or negative effects on root and shoot development.

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Andrew R. King, Michael A. Arnold, Douglas F. Welsh, and W. Todd Watson

Pezeshki and DeLaune (1994) . Zhou (2005) reported that rooting percentages increased for a baldcypress clone T302 ( T. distichum var. distichum × T. distichum var. mexicanum ) with the application of increasing levels of K-IBA. Cuttings treated

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Andrew R. King, Michael A. Arnold, Douglas F. Welsh, and W. Todd Watson

concentrations of IBA. In 1 year of the study, rooting percentages were 48% and 82% for 3000 and 8000 mg·L −1 IBA, respectively. Zhou (2005) found that rooting percentages increased with increasing levels of K-IBA. Cuttings treated with 5,000 and 10,000 mg

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Benjamin D. Taylor and Benjamin K. Hoover

Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) is frequently used to promote adventitious root development in plant propagation from cuttings. We evaluated the effects of 0, 1000, or 3000 ppm IBA applied as a liquid foliar spray or talc-based basal dip on adventitious rooting of wall germander (Teucrium chamaedrys) cuttings. An initial experiment was conducted in Fall 2016, followed by a replication in Spring 2017. Two-dimensional root area, primary root count, root dry weight, and a rooting index (0 to 5 scale) were assessed as measures of root growth. By all metrics and for both experiments, cuttings benefited from IBA application and exhibited equal or greater root growth after the foliar spray treatment compared with the talc dip. In both experiments and for all metrics, the talc dip method achieved no greater root growth at 3000 ppm IBA than the foliar spray method at 1000 ppm IBA. These results suggest that for wall germander, IBA application by the foliar spray method is equal or superior to the talc dip method presently in widespread use in the horticulture industry.