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Harold A.A. Gibbs

Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) recovered from Commelina benghalensis L., caused bacterial spot disease in cultivars of pepper and tomato susceptible to the pathogen. This is the first reported case of a dicot-infecting Xc pathovar infecting a monocot plant, represented here by a member of the Family Commelinaceae. Laboratory strains of the pathogen that included 81-23, 81-23M13, 82:4, 2595, and P6AD4, known to be pathogenic to pepper and tomato, promoted bacterial spot symptoms on leaves of C. benghalensis L. Of the 63 field isolates recovered from infected C. benghalensis L., 30 gave biochemical and physiological reactions consistent with Xcv pathogens, whereas 10 of the latter promoted bacterial spot disease in the test cultivars resulting in the identification of seven pathogenic races, including P2, P5, P6, P5T1, P5T2, P6T2, and P6T3. Bacterial spot disease symptoms developed on stems only when C. benghalensis L. was spray-inoculated with strains 81-23, 81-23M13, and P6AD4. Bacterial concentration increased in planta by as much as 103 per lesion of the leaf, whereas growth of the same strains was restricted in the stem of this weed. Growth of these three strains was, however, significantly (P ≤ 0.05) lower on NYGA amended with C. benghalensis L. stem extract than on NYGA amended with leaf extract. The ability of the bacterial spot pathogen to infect the stem of C. benghalensis L. has serious implications for management of bacterial spot disease in fields populated with this weed since stems of this plant infected with the pathogen continue to grow vegetatively and disperse throughout all fields in which it is found.

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Michele R. Warmund, Jeanne D. Mihail, and Kaley Hensel

, teliospores, and basidiospores develop on Carex spp. ( Mims, 1981 ). At least 13 species of sedge have been reported as an alternate host for P. sambuci ( Afshan and Khalid, 2009 ; Arthur, 1962 ). Pycnia are the first signs observed on elderberry leaflets

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Todd A. Burnes, Robert A. Blanchette, Jason A. Smith, and James J. Luby

can serve as alternate hosts for Cronartium ribicola , the causal agent of white pine blister rust (WPBR). This disease was introduced into North America over 100 years ago and has caused major mortality to native five-needle pines. Once the Ribes

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Marie-José Côté and Lisa Leduc

Common barberry ( Berberis vulgaris L.) is an alternate host for black stem rust of wheat, Puccinia graminis Pers. The shrub provides a means for the pathogen to reproduce after the winter and then spread to new cereal plants in the spring

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Clinton J. Steketee, Alfredo D. Martinez-Espinoza, Karen R. Harris-Shultz, Gerald M. Henry, and Paul L. Raymer

quality and playability of fine-textured paspalum. This disease is a widespread problem throughout the world, and nearly all cultivated turfgrass species can be a host for this pathogen ( Allen et al., 2005 ). Turfgrass cultural practices, such as proper

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M.V. Bhaskara Reddy and Joseph Arul

Fruit and vegetables are highly perishable and postharvest pathogens are one of the major causes in the early termination of their shelf life. Although synthetic fungicide are effective against postharvest pathogens, they face imminent problems. One alternate approach is the induction of host resistance against postharvest diseases. We tested the efficacy of chitosan, Milsana®, and Bion® on carrot, tomato, potato, green pepper, and strawberries against postharvest fungal and bacterial rots. Chitosan was not only antimicrobial but also induced resistance against postharvest infections of Alternaria, Botrytis, and Erwinia in tomato, green pepper, carrot, and potato. Preharvest sprays of chitosan induced resistance against postharvest infection of Botrytis cinerea in strawberries and improved the storage quality. Ultrastructure and cytochemical investigations showed that chitosan not only induced several morphological alterations in B. cinerea and Alternaria alternata inhibiting the production of pathogenic factors by the fungi, but also stimulated various host defense reactions, such as papilla formation and induction of defense enzymes, phytoalexins, and phenols. Application of Milsana®, a plant extract, and Bion®, an activator of host defenses, protected carrots from postharvest decay by B. cinerea. Milsana® was effective at 4 °C, while Bion® was effective at both 4 and 13 °C storage temperatures. Thus, there is great potential for defense inducers in postharvest disease control of fruit and vegetables.

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Abigail J. Walter, YongPing Duan, and David G. Hall

( Bové, 2006 ). HLB associated with C Las vectored by ACP is jeopardizing the Florida citrus industry ( Halbert et al., 2008 ) and threatens all citrus production in North America and the Caribbean basin. Both C Las and ACP have host plants within the

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J.S. Caldwell, J.P. Amirault, and A.H. Christian

Eighty-two vegetable growers responded to a survey on pests, beneficial insects, and cover crop use sent in Winter 1993–94 to 314 members of the Virginia Assn. for Biological Farming (VABF) and participants at the 1993 Virginia Sustainable Agriculture Conference. Respondents reported 68 occurrences of insect pests on 99 vegetable crops and herbs. Six insects (flea beetle, squash vine borer, stink bug, cucumber beetles, and Mexican bean beetle) comprised 70% of the occurrences. Squash vine borer and cucumber beetles on cucurbits comprised 24% of all pest occurrences. Insect pests attacked summer squash on 57% and cucumber on 49% of the farms. Average severity of squash vine borer damage was 3.8 (range 0–4, where 0 = no damage and 4 = death or destroyed). Average severity of cucumber beetle damage was 3.0 (severe). Squash vine borer was not observed by farmers on non-cucurbit alternate hosts. Cucumber beetles were observed on horse nettle (10%) and wild nightshades (6%), but on no other plants in most cases (61%) when found on cucurbits. The most frequently observed beneficial insects were lady beetles (64% of the farms), preying mantises (42%), wasps (29%), assassin bugs (18%), and spiders (15%). Only 29% of the farms had purchased beneficial insects, with assassin bugs (10%) and lady beetles (7%) the most common types. Vetches, clovers, rye, and buckwheat comprised 69% of the responses on 23 types of cover crops and mulches used.

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Kim E. Hummer and Stan Pluta

In the late 1800s a European disease called white pine blister rust, Cronartia ribicola Fisher, was introduced into the United States. By 1937 this disease had naturalized and was firmly established in native Ribes across the country. White pine blister rust causes economic damage to white pines and infects leaves of some Ribes late in the summer after harvest. Ribes serve as obligate alternate hosts for this disease. Our objective was to determine which Ribes species were susceptible to white pine blister rust under field conditions in Corvallis, Ore., where inoculum is naturally present. In 1995 and 1996, 57 Ribes taxa from North and South America, Europe, and Asia, were evaluated in mid-August and mid-September for presence of white pine blister rust. Susceptibility was determined by the rust infection of the abaxial leaf surfaces. Rust infection was rated on a scale from 1, no infection observed, to 9, severe infection covering almost the entire surface of at least three or more leaves. Data from 1995 indicated that 22 Ribes taxa were susceptible to white pine blister rust, while 35 others had no infection. The 1996 data will be reported. Species without infection may offer resistance genes to breeders who wish to develop rust-resistant commercial fruit cultivars.

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Kim E. Hummer

The center of diversity for white pine blister rust (WPBR) (Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fischer) most likely stretches from central Siberia east of the Ural Mountains to Asia, possibly bounded by the Himalayas to the south. The alternate hosts for WPBR, Asian five-needled pines (Pinus L.) and Ribes L. native to that region have developed WPBR resistance. Because the dispersal of C. ribicola to Europe and North America occurred within the last several hundred years, the North American five-needled white pines, Pinus subsections, Strobus and Parya, had no previous selection pressure to develop resistance. Establishment of WPBR in North American resulted when plants were transported both ways across the Atlantic Ocean. In 1705, Lord Weymouth had white pine (P. strobis L.), also called weymouth pine in Europe, seed and seedlings brought to England. These trees were planted throughout eastern Europe. In the mid-1800s, WPBR outbreaks were reported in Ribes and then in white pines in eastern Europe. The pathogen may have been brought to Europe on an infected pine from Russia. In the late 1800s American nurserymen, unaware of the European rust incidence, imported many infected white pine seedlings from France and Germany for reforestation efforts. By 1914, rust-infected white pine nursery stock was imported into Connecticut, Indiana, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Hampshire, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Vermont, and Wisconsin, and in the Canadian provinces of Ontario, Quebec, and British Columbia. The range of WPBR is established in eastern North America and the Pacific Northwest. New infection sites in Nevada, South Dakota, New Mexico and Colorado have been observed during the 1990s.