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Shuoli Zhao, Chengyan Yue, James Luby, Karina Gallardo, Vicki McCracken, James McFerson, and Desmond R. Layne

producers who take the risk of investing in growing a cultivar they hope will have consumer acceptance throughout the supply chain. Since producers are the direct clientele of breeding programs, their perceptions and valuations of fruit attributes provide

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V. Kagan-Zur, D. Yaron-Miron, and Y. Mizrahi

A spontaneous tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) triploid was studied with a view to its commercialization. Fruits induced by auxin contained 50% more DNA and 30% more protein than their diploid counterpart. The fruits were 50% larger than those of the diploid counterpart and were juicy but seedless. All fruit quality characteristics checked (polygalacturonase activity, reducing sugars content, electrical conductivity, pH, titratable acidity, pigment content, and shelf life) were comparable to the diploid except for ethylene evolution rate, which was lower than that of the diploid counterpart, and flavor, which was superior. The line seems suitable for agricultural cultivation.

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Richard E.C. Layne, Chin S. Tan, and David M. Hunter

Three cultivars (`Garnet Beauty', `Harbrite', `Canadian Harmony'), two ground covers (temporary cover vs. permanent sod), and no irrigation vs. season-long trickle irrigation were studied in a high-density (633 trees/ha) peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] orchard established on Fox sand in 1980. From 1985 to 1989, soil water content in the top 130 cm was similar in nonirrigated and trickle-irrigated plots except during the growing season (May to September). Total soil water was lowest in nonirrigated plots that had permanent sod strips in the row middles and fell below the-permanent wilting point for ≥11 months in summer but not at depths below 130 cm. Trunk cross-sectional area (TCA) was greater for `Canadian Harmony' and `Harbrite' than `Garnet Beauty', ground-cover treatments had no effect, and irrigated trees were generally larger than those not irrigated. Photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance differed by cultivar, were unaffected by ground cover, and were enhanced by irrigation. Defoliation differed by cultivar, ground cover had little effect, and irrigation usually delayed defoliation. Flower bud and shoot xylem hardiness differed by cultivar but not by ground cover and were generally enhanced by irrigation. Tree survival was significantly affected by cultivar, being best with `Harbrite' and `Canadian Harmony' and poorest with `Garnet Beauty'. Permanent sod enhanced tree survival while trickle irrigation reduced it. Cumulative marketable yields were affected more by cultivar than by ground cover or irrigation. `Canadian Harmony' had the highest yield, followed by `Harbrite', then `Garnet Beauty'. Yields in sod were slightly higher than in temporary cover and yields with trickle irrigation were slightly higher than without irrigation. The best soil-management system when TCA, marketable yield, and tree survival were considered was a combination of permanent creeping red fescue sod strips in the row middles and trickle irrigation in the tree row. This system is being recommended to commercial growers in southwestern Ontario.

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Ruchen Zhou, Chengyan Yue, Shuoli Zhao, R. Karina Gallardo, Vicki McCracken, James J. Luby, and James R. McFerson

critical information to the U.S. peach industry to effectively marketing their products. A number of studies have assessed consumer preferences for specific fruit attributes. For example, van der Pol and Ryan (1996) found Scottish consumers preferred

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Hazel Y. Wetzstein, Zibin Zhang, Nadav Ravid, and Michael E. Wetzstein

trees of the same genotype grown under similar cultivation practices (N. Ravid, personal communication). Although pomegranates have been cultivated since antiquity, fruit attributes, particularly those related to size, are poorly defined. With market

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Jong Woo Choi, Chengyan Yue, James Luby, Shuoli Zhao, Karina Gallardo, Vicki McCracken, and Jim McFerson

We conducted choice experiments with both strawberry producers and consumers. Consumer and producer willingness to pay (WTP) for the fruit attributes were estimated using mixed logit models. Through simulation using the mixed logit model results, we derived the market equilibrium prices, supply and demand curve, as well as quantities demanded and supplied for every fruit attribute. We found the highest equilibrium price was for strawberry internal color followed by flavor. Strawberry breeders can use the information when setting breeding targets, allocating resources appropriately during their breeding process and focusing on the improvement of attributes that produce the highest social surplus and total revenue.

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John R. Stommel and Robert J. Griesbach

information on the inheritance of Capsicum fruit attributes and provide new information on the genetic control of leaf characters and plant habit. Literature Cited Allard, R.W. 1960 Plant breeding Wiley New York, NY

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Molly Felts, Renee T. Threlfall, John R. Clark, and Margaret L. Worthington

-market muscadine berries. Descriptive sensory analysis quantitatively describes fruit attributes, such as basic tastes, aroma, and texture, using trained panelists ( Contador et al., 2017 ). Utilization of this method has the potential to describe how an attribute

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H. Ahmadi, W.V. Biasi, and E.J. Mitcham

Effects of short-term exposure to a 15% CO2 atmosphere on nectarines [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch (Nectarine Group) `Summer Red'] inoculated with Monilinia fructicola (Wint.) Honey (causal agent of brown rot) were investigated. Nectarines were inoculated with spores of M. fructicola and incubated at 20 °C for 24, 48 or 72 hours and then transferred to storage in either air or air enriched with 15% CO2 at 5 °C. Fruit were removed from storage after 5 and 16 days and were examined for brown rot decay immediately and after ripening in air for 3 days at 20 °C. Noninoculated nectarines were stored and treated likewise for evaluation of postharvest fruit attributes to determine their tolerance to 15% CO2. Incubation period after inoculation, storage duration, and storage atmosphere had highly significant effects on fruit decay. `Summer Red' nectarines tolerated a 15% CO2 atmosphere for 16 days at 5 °C. Development of brown rot decay in fruit inoculated 24 hours before 5 or 16 days storage in 15% CO2 at 5 °C was arrested. After 3 days ripening in air at 20 °C, the progression of brown rot disease was rapid in all inoculated nectarines, demonstrating the fungistatic effect of 15% CO2. The quantity of fungal cell wall materials (estimated by glucosamine concentration) was compared to visual estimation of decayed area and visual rating of fungal sporulation. The glucosamine assay defined the onset and progress of brown rot infection more precisely than either of the two visual tests.

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Maite A. Chauvin, Matthew Whiting, and Carolyn F. Ross

The objective of this study was to identify the influence of harvest time on sensory attributes of sweet cherries (Prunus avium) as evaluated by a trained and consumer panel. Over three separate panel days, trained and consumer panelists evaluated ‘Sweetheart’ cherries that were harvested 3 days before commercial maturity (early harvest), at commercial maturity (midharvest), and 3 days postcommercial maturity (late harvest). Fruit attributes from each harvest time were characterized empirically by quantifying soluble solids concentration, exocarp color, and firmness. A sensory panel (n = 12), trained to recognize and evaluate the attributes of cherry appearance (color intensity), texture (flesh firmness and juiciness), and flavor/taste (sweetness, sourness, and cherry flavor intensity), evaluated the fruit. Fruit were then evaluated by a consumer panel for purchase intent, overall acceptance, appearance, flavor, and texture. From the trained panel results, late-harvest cherries were higher in color and flavor intensity. Midharvest cherries were highest in firmness, while early-harvest cherries were lowest in color intensity and sweetness. Consumer panel results indicated midharvest and late-harvest cherries had the highest overall acceptance, and midharvest cherries had the highest acceptance for appearance. Overall acceptance was strongly correlated to flavor acceptance (r = 0.94). These results indicated that cherries harvested at midharvest were the most preferred of the harvest times despite not having the highest intensities of color, sweetness, or flavor. This indicated the importance of color, sweetness, and flavor of cherries on the overall acceptance and the possible interaction of these attributes in consumer acceptance. Furthermore, the results suggest that standard harvest maturity indicator (i.e., red coloration of exocarp) was appropriate for optimum consumer acceptance of ‘Sweetheart’. More broadly, these results suggest that there is some flexibility for the grower with regards to ‘Sweetheart’ cherry harvest and acceptable sensory properties.