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Robert A. Saftner, Judith A. Abbott, William S. Conway, and Cynthia L. Barden

Air heat, methyl jasmonate dip, and vapor treatments with the ethylene action inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (MCP) were used to evaluate their effects on ripening-related characteristics and susceptibility to fungal decay in `Golden Delicious' apples (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) through 5 months of storage at 0 °C and ripening at 20 °C for 7 days. Preclimacteric fruit were treated with MCP vapor at a concentration of 1 μL•L-1 for 18 h at 20 °C, 38 °C air for 4 days, methyl jasmonate dip at concentrations of 10-5 and 10-4 for 3 min at 20 °C, combinations thereof, or left untreated before storage in air at 0 °C. One set of untreated fruit was stored in a controlled atmosphere of 1.5 O2 and 2.5% CO2 at 0 °C. The MCP treatment and CA storage delayed ripening, as indicated by better retention of green peel color and flesh firmness, and the reduced respiration, ethylene production rates, and volatile (both flavor- and superficial scald-associated) levels that were observed upon transferring the fruit to 20 °C. The MCP treatment followed by air storage delayed ripening more than CA storage. The heat treatment also delayed ripening but hastened skin yellowing. While methyl jasmonate dips had no significant effect on ripening, they were the only treatments used that reduced the incidence of postharvest decay and discolored the surface of some fruit. The results indicate that MCP may provide an effective alternative to CA for maintaining quality during cold storage and ripening. The results also indicate that methyl jasmonate dip treatment may reduce postharvest decay of fruit while maintaining fruit quality.

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Jun Song, Weimin Deng, Randolph M. Beaudry, and Paul R. Armstrong

Trends in chlorophyll fluorescence for `Starking Delicious', `Golden Delicious' and `Law Rome' apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) fruit were examined during the harvest season, during refrigerated-air (RA) storage at 0 °C, following RA and controlled-atmosphere (CA) storage, and during a poststorage holding period at 22 °C. Fluorescence parameters of minimal fluorescence (Fo), maximal fluorescence (Fm), and quantum yield [(Fm-Fo)/Fm, otherwise denoted as Fv/Fm] were measured. During `Starking Delicious' fruit maturation and ripening, Fv/Fm declined with time, with the rate of decline increasing after the ethylene climacteric. During RA storage, all fluorescence parameters remained constant for approximately 2 weeks, then steadily declined with time for `Starking Delicious' fruit. Superficial scald was detected after Fv/Fm had declined from an initial value of 0.78 to ≈0.7. Fv/Fm was consistently higher for CA-stored fruits than for RA-stored fruits. We were able to resegregate combined populations of “high-quality” (CA) and “low-quality” (RA) `Law Rome' fruit with 75% accuracy using a threshold Fv/Fm value of 0.685, with only 5% RA-stored fruit incorrectly identified as being of high quality. During a poststorage holding period, Fo, Fm, and Fv/Fm correlated well with firmness for `Starking Delicious', but not for `Golden Delicious' fruit, which were already soft. Fo and Fm were linearly correlated with hue angle for 'Golden Delicious' fruit, decreasing as yellowness increased. The accuracy, speed of assessment, and light-based nature of fluorescence suggests that it may have some practical use as a criterion to assist in sorting apple or other chlorophyll-containing fruit or vegetables on commercial packing lines.

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Luiz C. Argenta, Xuetong Fan, and James P. Mattheis

McManus, 2005 ). Maximum control of fruit softening, superficial scald, and senescent breakdown for apples is achieved by treatment as soon after harvest as possible ( Argenta et al., 2005 ; Watkins and Nock, 2005 ). The low boiling point (less than 10

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Jennifer R. DeEll and Behrouz Ehsani-Moghaddam

apple ripening J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 124 690 695 Fan, X. Mattheis, J.P. Blankenship, S.M. 1999b Development of apple superficial scald, soft scald, core flush, and greasiness is reduced by MCP J. Agr

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Yosef Al Shoffe, Abdul Sattar Shah, Jacqueline F. Nock, and Christopher B. Watkins

). Similarly, a storage regimen of 10 °C for 10 d, 4 °C for the next 20 d, and 0 °C for the remaining 150 d resulted in the least superficial scald incidence in fruit without 1-methylcyclopropene treatment ( Moggia et al., 2009 ). We found that fruit with

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James P. Mattheis

Washington State industry. Another impact of postharvest 1-MCP use is the potential to eliminate postharvest drench treatments for control of superficial scald and decay. Where the fungicide drench is not used, a renewed emphasis on field decay control

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Rachel S. Leisso, Ines Hanrahan, James P. Mattheis, and David R. Rudell

-tree development and storage in atmospheres conducive to internal browning development Postharvest Biol. Technol. 61 95 102 Fernández-Trujillo, J.P. Nock, J.F. Watkins, C.B. 2001 Superficial scald, carbon dioxide injury, and changes of fermentation products and

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Richard L. Bell and Tom van der Zwet

hemisphere ( van der Zwet and Beer, 1999 ). Long storage life, absence of core breakdown, and resistance to superficial scald are also economically important physiological traits. ‘Shenandoah’ was released by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and The Ohio

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Christopher B. Watkins and Jacqueline F. Nock

, and by treatment of fruit with the antioxidant diphenylamine (DPA) applied to fruit to inhibit development of superficial scald ( Burmeister and Dilley, 1995 ; de Castro et al., 2007 ; Fawbush et al., 2008 ; Mattheis and Rudell, 2008 ; Watkins et

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Max G. Villalobos-Acuña, William V. Biasi, Sylvia Flores, Elizabeth J. Mitcham, Rachel B. Elkins, and Neil H. Willits

gene expression during tomato flower abscission Plant Physiol. 111 813 820 Du, Z. Bramlage, W.J. 1994 Roles of ethylene in the development of superficial scald in ‘Cortland’ apples J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 119