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Clíssia Barboza da Silva, Julio Marcos-Filho, Pablo Jourdan, and Mark A. Bennett

the two key phytohormones of the seed germination process, with antagonistic roles in the regulation of these events. However, researchers have shown that BRs, in parallel with GA3, can also have an antagonistic effect on ABA, and BRs signaling is

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Luis Pozo and Jacqueline K. Burns

-like autocatalytic ethylene biosynthesis activity ( Katz et al., 2004 ). System II gives way to System I as development proceeds, which is characterized by low internal ethylene production and autoinhibition. Together with the balance between phytohormones such as

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Christian T. Christensen, Lincoln Zotarelli, Kathleen G. Haynes, and Charles Ethan Kelly

flowers: Genes and phytohormones, p. 325–366. In: E. Galun (ed.). Phytohormones and patterning: The role of hormones in plant architecture. World Scientific, Hackensack, NJ Gandarillas, H. Nylund, R.E. 1949 Further studies on the influence of sprout

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Ockert P.J. Stander, Graham H. Barry, and Paul J.R. Cronjé

—the hormonal theory and the nutritional theory ( Bangerth, 2009 ; Barnett and Mielke, 1981 ; Davenport, 2000 ; Goldschmidt, 1999 ). The hormonal theory of alternate bearing suggests that phytohormones are responsible for floral inhibition during an “on” year

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Piyada Alisha Tantasawat, Atitaya Sorntip, and Paniti Pornbungkerd

; Cooke et al., 1993 ). Because the gynogenesis response in cucumber appeared to be seasonally variable (P.A. Tantasawat et al., unpublished data), it is possible that the endogenous phytohormone levels in donor plant tissues, which were environment

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Wenjing Guan, Xin Zhao, Richard Hassell, and Judy Thies

-distance signals also may involve mRNAs and small RNAs ( Kehr and Buhtz, 2008 ). RNA transcripts, which have been identified in the phloem, include transcriptional regulators, genes controlling cell fate and cell cycle, phytohormone responsive genes, and metabolic

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Yanjiao Zheng, Zaiqiang Yang, Chao Xu, Lin Wang, Haijing Huang, and Shiqiong Yang

temperature stress is closely related to the nature of the plant itself. Therefore, the role of GA 3 in tomato plants under high temperature stress remains to be further explored. ZT is an important phytohormone, mainly produced in roots, involved in various

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Yu-Chi Lee and Jer-Chia Chang

set, seed weight, and shriveling of ‘73-S-20’ litchi—with special reference to artificial induction of parthenocarpy HortScience 50 369 373 Davenport, T.L. 2000 Processes influencing floral initiation and bloom: The role of phytohormones in a

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Feifei Li, Da Zhan, Lixin Xu, Liebao Han, and Xunzhong Zhang

of antioxidant defenses. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New York, NY Musatenko, L.I. Vedenicheva, N.P. Vasyuk, V.A. Generalova, V.N. 2003 Phytohormones in seedlings of maize hybrids differing in their tolerance to high temperature Russ. J. Plant

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Vijaya Shukla, Yingmei Ma, and Emily Merewitz

Plant cells contain long-chain amine compounds called polyamines, of which the most common are spermidine, spermine, and putrescine. These compounds are considered phytohormone-like because they play various regulatory roles in plant cells. They are