and 20 mg·L −1 silver nitrate significantly improved the vase life of ‘Eiffel Tower’, ‘Swartmore’, and ‘Yankee’ roses, but did not improve vase life of ‘King’s Ransom’ or ‘Confidence’. Ethylene, a naturally occurring plant hormone, is another
Erin P. Moody, John M. Dole, and Jared Barnes
Thea M Edwards, Terril A. Nell, and James E. Barrett
Increased rates of senescence and ethylene related damage of potted flowering plants have been observed in supermarket produce areas where flowers and climacteric produce are displayed together. Ethylene levels in produce areas were found to average 20 ppb. An open system of clear glass chambers with fiberglass lids was designed to simulate retail supermarket conditions. The chambers were kept in postharvest rooms where light level and temperature could be controlled. In a 3 by 3 by 3 Box-Behnken design, Sunblaze `Candy' miniature potted roses were exposed to three levels of ethylene, 20, 40, and 80 ppb, for 1, 2, and 4 days. The three light levels used were: 0, 7, and 14 μmol·m-2·s-1. Ethylene damage was based on leaf and bud drop and decreased flower longevity.
Norman K. Lownds and Tracy M. Sterling
Broom snakeweed [Gutierrezia sarothrae (Pursh) Britt. & Rusby] is a suffrutescent shrub that is a problem in rangeland production areas because it interferes with forage growth and is potentially dangerous to livestock. Picloram, an auxin-like herbicide, is used for broom snakeweed control. Picloram-induced ethylene production may be important to its efficacy, therefore, studies were conducted to characterize ethylene production and phytotoxicity. Picloram, applied as individual drops, induced a linear increase in ethylene production (r= 0.738***) between 0 and 72 hr after treatment. When plants were sprayed with 0.125, 0.25 and 0.50 lb ae/A, ethylene production increased linearly through 120 hr then leveled off and began to decrease for all three concentrations. The highest rate of ethylene production was induced by 0.25 lb ae/A followed by 0.50 and 0.125, respectively. Epinasty was evident 24 hr after treatment and chlorosis 3 to 4 days after treatment. Both were more severe with increasing picloram concentration. It appears that picloram-induced ethylene production is an important component in picloram activity.
Murray Clayton, William V. Biasi, and Elizabeth J. Mitcham
`Bartlett' pears (Pyrus communis L.) were harvested and ripened with and without ethylene in standard field bins at a commercial cannery. Mean firmness and firmness uniformity within a bin was evaluated for ethylene- and nonethylene-treated fruit. Uniformity of firmness among pears within a bin increased as ripening progressed. Applying 100 ppm (10 Pa) of ethylene gas during the first 24 hours of commercial ripening accelerated ripening of `Bartlett' pears held in standard field bins. Improved firmness uniformity would therefore be expected in ethylene-treated fruit commercially ripened to a lower firmness than untreated fruit otherwise ripened and processed at a higher firmness—the improved firmness uniformity was due to the lower firmness and not a specific effect of ethylene on ripening uniformity. When fruit were cold-stored for 20 days at 32 °F (0 °C) before ripening, the mean firmness and firmness uniformity of fruit exposed to ethylene during initial ripening was no different than nonethylene-treated fruit. Results from this study also indicate that fluctuations in ripening room air temperature, under some conditions, might increase firmness variability between fruit within a standard field bin.
Luiz C. Argenta, Xuetong Fan, and James P. Mattheis
The ethylene action inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) prevents plant tissues from responding to ethylene ( Sisler and Blankenship, 1996 ) by combining with ethylene receptors ( Sisler and Serek, 1997 ). Impacts of 1-MCP demonstrated for many
Shunzhao Sui, Jianghui Luo, Daofeng Liu, Jing Ma, Weiting Men, Lu Fan, Yu Bai, and Mingyang Li
hindered the further expansion of commercial demand. It is known that plant hormones are implicated in the regulation of flower senescence, and may have a dramatic effect on the vase life of cut flowers. Research studies have reported that ethylene promoted
Ren-Huang Wang, Yu-Mei Hsu, Duane P. Bartholomew, Subbiyan Maruthasalam, and Chin-Ho Lin
variety of factors, including cultivar sensitivity, plant size, and the prevailing weather conditions, particularly temperature ( Kuan et al., 2005 ; Lin et al., 2005 ). Forcing (induction of flowering by external application of ethylene or related
Sokrith Sea, Cyril Rakovski, and Anuradha Prakash
irradiation treatment, the pears were evaluated daily during ripening for changes in respiration rate, ethylene production, and quality attributes followed by sensory testing at peak ripeness. Material and Methods Sample attainment. Size 135 ‘Bartlett’ pears
Andrew R. East, David J. Tanner, Jenny J. Jobling, Kate M. Maguire, and A. John Mawson
storage ( Watkins et al., 2000 ), has previously been investigated primarily as a means to minimize chilling injury development and hence extend the product storage life. This body of work provides evidence of increased ethylene production ( Liu, 1986
I. Lara and M. Vendrell
ABA and ethylene treatments were applied to preclimacteric `Granny Smith' apples [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] harvested at three different maturity stages. Ethylene production rates, ethylene-forming capacity (EFC), free and conjugated ACC contents, presence of ACC oxidase (ACO) and ripening-related ACC synthase (ACS) proteins, and endogenous ABA levels were monitored at harvest and during 3 weeks thereafter. ABA treatment resulted in a specific accumulation of ACO protein and of ACS-related polypeptides in fruit collected ≈2 months before commercial harvest, whereas the same tissues showed no response to exogenous ethylene. In contrast, fruit harvested 1 month later proved more sensitive to ethylene but not to ABA, in accordance with evolution of endogenous ABA levels, which were highest at this maturity stage and were enhanced in response to exogenous ethylene. A possible role for ABA as an inductor of the competency to ripen is discussed. Chemical names used: abscisic acid (ABA); 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC).