The pecan is native to North America and is cultured as a major crop in both the United States and Mexico. In the early part of this century, pecans were thought of as a secondary crop grown in the southern geographic section of the United States. Increased demand for use as a nutritious food has resulted in expansion of the industry into the desert Southwest and California. Adaptive cultivars and irrigation coupled with the lack of diseases and insects has been instrumental in industry development in the West. As the industry has matured during the latter part of the century, pecan culture has improved into a strong crop enterprise business. Orchard management technique and orchard development concepts have been refined, resulting in increased production and awareness. In recent years, production in Mexico has impacted the U.S. price structure and pecan industry economy. The alternate-bearing nature of pecans also impacts prices received by growers. The aging of pecan trees has resulted in serious dilemmas, such as increased tree size and shading. This situation requires techniques such as tree thinning or hedge pruning to enhance annual production and improve nut quality. Various ramifications and parameters of these management practices will be discussed.
Victor Garcia de Cortazar and Gabino Reginato
Three different parameters were tested to estimate yield in `Royal Gala' apples. These are: a) parameters related to crop load—fruits per tree, fruits per cm2 of branch cross-sectional area, and fruits per hectare; b) parameters related with PFD interception: average fraction of PFD intercepted, total PFD intercepted during the season; and c) combination of the parameters a) and b). The data set was composed of measurements of PFD interception once a month and of yield components on various commercial apple orchards of the variety `Royal Gala' in the central zone of Chile between 2003 and 2006. The orchards were managed for high production, but there were differences of plantation distance, age, and size between them. Also, inside the orchard there were differences between trees. For the trees studied, there were variations of a factor of 10 for crop load, branch cross-sectional area, and tree size estimated as fractional interception of PFD at the beginning of the season. In spite of the big differences between trees, simple equations were fitted between yield and load parameters with coefficients of determination >0.95. Research funded by FONDECYT-Chile grant 1930695.
J. Angel Saavedra, Elden J. Stang, and Jiwan P. Palta
Uniconazole (UCZ) can control tree size by suppressing tree growth. Growth control of one year-old `Haralred' on MAC 9 `MARK' (dwarf) and EMLA 7 (semidwarf) rootstock was evaluated in the greenhouse. Uniconazole (65 or 130 mg/L) was sprayed 0, 1, 2 or 3 times at 3 week intervals. Total shoot growth was inhibited 31% and 24% on `MARK' and EMLA 7 rootstock, respectively, with 130 mg/L. Rootstock and scion diameter and number of leaves per tree were not affected by UCZ. Total leaf area on `MARK' rootstock increased when UCZ was applied once at 65 or 130 mg/L. On EMLA 7 two 130 mg/L sprays resulted in 22% less total leaf area compared to the control. UCZ applied three times reduced specific leaf weight on EMLA 7 trees 12% compared to the control. Branch angle was increased proportional to UCZ applications on semidwarf rootstock from 40° to 47°, and decreased on dwarf rootstock from 47° to 39°. Stomatal conductance increased 43% on `MARK' with 130 mg/L UCZ applied two times. Net photosynthesis of attached leaves did not differ. All UCZ treatments produced 18 to 56% fewer total flower clusters per tree than the control. UCZ appeared to delay bloom significantly.
Warren C. Micke, Mark W. Freeman, and James T. Yeager
A replicated rootstock trial for almond was established in 1986 in the central San Joaquin Valley, a major almond growing area for this most widely planted tree crop in California. `Nonpareil', the major cultivar in California, was used for this trial with `Fritz' grown as the pollenizing cultivar. Two standard rootstocks for almond, `Nemaguard' and `Lovell' peach, were compared to two newer peach-almond hybrid rootstocks, `Bright's' and `Hansen'. After eight years both hybrid rootstocks produced significantly larger trees than the peach rootstocks, based on trunk cross-sectional area. Trees on hybrid rootstocks frequently produced greater yields than those on peach rootstocks; although, differences were not always significant. However, there were generally no significant differences in production per trunk cross-sectional area (yield efficiency). Thus, increased production by trees on hybrid rootstock was the result of larger tree size and not an inherent increase in productive efficiency of the tree itself. Since trees on hybrid rootstock should be planted further apart than those on peach, production per hectare should not be significantly increased, at least under good growing conditions as represented in this trial.
Annual shoot and trunk xylem growth increment of `Starkspur Supreme' in the 1984 NC-140 uniform rootstock trial was studied of 10 selected rootstocks representing a range of tree sizes. Shoot growth was measured weekly from budbreak through harvest in each of four seasons. After 11 seasons of growth, whole trees were cut, placed in water containing diffuse fuschin dye for 30 to 60 min during mid-day. After that, a section of trunk (10 to 15 cm long) was excised at 25 cm above the graft union. Trunk xylem thickness and percent of water transport active xylem were measured. Shoot length during the study was related to both the duration and rate of growth; however, growth duration contributed more to variation among stocks. In all stocks, it appears that almost all xylem translocated water and that there was very little “plugged” or active xylem. There were no differences among stocks for the relative percentage of active xylem. Annual xylem increment width varied with stock. The vegetative growth of these trees will be discussed relative to the production efficiency of scions on these stocks.
Fenton E. Larsen and Stewart S. Higgins
Tree size, cumulative yield, yield efficiency and anchorage of 6 micropropagated (MP) apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars were determined in 1991 after 5 years of production, as compared with trees on seedling (sdlg) or M 7a roots. Trees were planted in 1984, with crops harvested from 1987 through 1991. Trees were generally smallest (trunk cross-sectional area) on M 7a and were largest with 4 cultivars (`Delicious', `Jonathan', `Rome', `Spartan') when micropropagated. `Golden Delicious' (GD) was largest on sdlg. Cumulative yield was affected by a scion × rootstock interaction, with few trends in scion or rootstock effects. Mean cumulative yield was 84 kg tree-1, 71 and 58 for M 7a, MP and sdlg, respectively. Yield efficiency was also affected by a scion × rootstock interaction. In 1991, mean yield efficiency was 0.5 kg cm-2 for sdlg and MP trees, but was 1.05 for M 7a. Efficiency on M 7a was superior to other rootstocks with all scions except `GD', while sdlg and MP trees were statistically similar with all scions. All trees leaned in response to prevailing westerly winds, with trees on sdlg tending to be more upright than MP or M 7a trees.
J.P. Syvertsen, M.L. Smith, and B.J. Boman
Effects of salinized irrigation water on tree canopy and root growth, water use, foliar nutrition, and leaching losses below the rootzone were studied during a 2-year period using single tree lysimeters. Eighteen 6-year-old `Valencia' orange trees on either Carrizo citrange (CC) rootstock or sour orange (SO) rootstock were each transplanted into 7.8 m3 drainage lysimeters and irrigated with water having an electrical conductivity of 0.3, 1.6, or 2.5 dS m-1 from a 3:1 ratio of NaCl:CaCl2. Six additional trees (3 on each rootstock) were transplanted into soil without tanks. Trees outside the tanks were smaller, but nutritionally similar to the low salinity trees in lysimeters. Trees on CC were larger, had greater root densities, and were associated with less leaching of ions and nutrients into drainage water from the tanks than trees on SO. High salinity irrigation water reduced canopy growth and ET, but increased fibrous root dry weight. Trees on CC accumulated more Cl in leaves and in fruit juice than those on SO. Leaching loss of total N varied from 2-8% of that annually applied to trees, but up to 70% of the applied N and up to 80% of the applied K were leached from the blank tank with no tree. Salinized trees lost more N and K to drainage water, especially those on SO. Tree size, root density, and irrigation water quality can influence leaching losses beyond the rootzone.
Jim Syvertsen, J. Lloyd, and G. D. Farquhar
Four to six-yr-old `Red Ruby' grapefruit trees on either `Volkamer' lemon (VL) or sour orange (SO) rootstocks were fertilized with 3 rates of nitrogen (N) over a 3 year period. We studied the effects of leaf N concentration on stomatal conductance (gs), net assimilation (A) of CO2 (Li-Cor portable gas exchange system), carbon isotope discrimination (δ 13C) of tree tissues, root growth, canopy development and fruit yield. Using springtime measurements of net gas exchange during the fifth year, gs, A and leaf tissue δ 13C were positively correlated with leaf N. The faster growing trees on VL had larger canopy volumes and fruit yields but lower leaf N, A and δ 13C than those on SO. Thus δ 13C was positively correlated with A but negatively related to tree size and yield. By the sixth year, δ 13C was still related to N but tree growth had apparently obscured any rootstock effects on leaf N, water use efficiency, A and δ 13C. Leaf and trunk bark tissue δ 13C did not differ but root bark had lowest δ 13C regardless of rootstock species.
George M. Greene II and Alvan G. Gaus
The influence of rootstocks on the growth and productivity of `Starkspur Supreme Pagnelli Delicious' was determined in an NC-140 experiment started in 1984. The planting was supplemental to the main experiment and it contained Ottawa (Ott) 3, M.20, and Arnold Lynd (AL) 800, but did not contain Budagovsky (Bud) 490, Bud 9, Antonovka 313, or C6. Trees that apparently would not stand were given support. Data on tree size and yield were collected every year. As expected, many characteristics were strongly influenced by rootstock. Yield efficiency calculated as the total fruit weight per square cm of trunk cross-sectional area was used as a measure of production efficiency. In 1989, efficient producers of fruit (all in decreasing order) were Poland (P) 2, EMLA.26, P 16, and Michigan Apple Clone (MAC) 39. Intermediate in productivity were M.20, Cornell-Geneva (CG) 10, Pl, and AL 800. A lower efficiency group of rootstocks were EMLA.7, Ott 3, MAC 1, Seedling, M.4, P 18, and CG 24. `Golden Delicious' and `McIntosh' on EMLA.26, used as pollinizers, were ranked second and third in yield efficiency.
Xinwang Wang, Deborah Dean, Phillip Wadl, Denita Hadziabdic, Brian Scheffler, Timothy Rinehart, Raul Cabrera, and Robert Trigiano
Lagerstroemia L. (crape myrtle) is an economically important woody plant genus with several deciduous flowering ornamental species. A wide range of flower colors, long flowering periods, growth habits ranging from miniature to tree sizes, and exfoliating bark characteristics provide horticulturists and nursery growers with a great deal of interest in the breeding and genetics of this genus. We report microsatellite marker development from a GT-enriched genomic library of the interspecific hybrid ‘Natchez’ (L. indica L. × L. fauriei Koehne). Twelve of 43 novel microsatellite loci were characterized on a collection of 33 Lagerstroemia cultivars and accessions. Four to eight alleles per locus (mean = 5.6 alleles) were detected. Allelic richness ranged from 3.9 to 7.2 with a mean of 5.3. The level of polymorphism detected (average gene diversity of 0.68) indicates moderately high genetic diversity within the selections of crape myrtle cultivars and accessions. The examined markers also exhibited high cross-species transferability to L. fauriei, L. limii Merr., and L. subcostata Koehne.