Good quality of fresh `Mission' figs (Ficus carica L.) was maintained for up to 4 weeks when kept at 0, 2.2, or 5C in atmospheres enriched with 15% or 20% CO2. The visible benefits of exposure to high CO2 levels were reduction of decay incidence and maintenance of bright external appearance. Ethylene production was lower, and fruit softening (as measured with a deformation tester) was slower in the high-CO2-stored figs than in those kept in air. Ethanol content of the CO2-treated fruit increased slightly during the first 3 weeks and moderately during the 4th week, while acetaldehyde concentration increased during the first week, then decreased. The results may be applicable to the transport and storage of fresh `Mission' figs, as high CO2 extended their postharvest life, especially near 0C.
Giancarlo Colelli, F. Gordon Mitchell, and Adel A. Kader
Julio Loaiza and Marita Cantwell
Respiration rates of freshly harvested cilantro were moderately high (CO2 at 15 to 20 μL·g-1·h-1) and ethylene production rates were low (<0.2 nL·g-1·h-1) at 5 °C and were typical of green leafy tissues. Cilantro stored in darkness at a range of temperatures in air or controlled atmospheres was evaluated periodically for visual quality, decay, aroma, off-odor, color, and chlorophyll content. Cilantro stored in air at 0 °C had good visual quality for 18 to 22 days, while at 5 and 7.5 °C good quality was maintained for about 14 and 7 days, respectively. An atmosphere of air plus 5% or 9% CO2 extended the shelf-life of cilantro stored at 7.5 °C to about 14 days. Quality of cilantro stored in 3% O2plus CO2 was similar to that stored in air plus CO2. Atmospheres enriched with 9% to 10% CO2 caused dark lesions after 18 days; 20% CO2 caused severe injury after 7 days. Although visual quality could be maintained for up to 22 days, typical cilantro aroma decreased notably after 14 days, regardless of storage conditions.
Krista C. Shellie
An instrumented sphere (IS) was used to identify high-impact areas on seven grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) packing lines in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. The packing-line unit operations having the greatest percentage of high impacts were 1) the sizer, 2) when #2 fruit were separated by hand at the grading table, 3) when fruit were dumped from the harvest bin onto the packing line, and 4) when fruit dropped into a collection bin at the end of the packing line. The number of high impacts and the amount of cushioning in high-impact areas varied among the seven packing sheds. The amount of red dye visible on the surface of fruit collected from the end of each shed's packing line did not correspond with each shed's percentage of high impacts or with incidence of decay during fruit storage. The severity of impacts and degree of cushioning provided in these Texas packing sheds were comparable to that reported for 39 Florida packing houses. This study illustrates the usefulness of the IS for enhancing individual packing-line operations and for comparing individual shed performance to packing-line operations in other agricultural production regions.
N.A. Mir and R.M. Beaudry
The changes in volatile-aroma of Penicillium expansium and Botrytis cinerea fungi and apple fruit inoculated with these fungi were studied using GC-MS. A specially designed chamber with raised end glass tubes with access ports fitted with Teflon-lined septa was used to determine the volatile profile for fungi on agar. Inoculated fruit were placed in glass flow-through chambers similarly fitted with sampling ports. Volatile collection from fruits or fungi was accomplished using solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) device (Supelco, Inc.). In fungi-inoculated fruits, volatiles not produced by uninfected fruit included formic acid, 2-cyano acetamide; 1-hydroxy-2-propanone, and 1-1-diethoxy-2-propanone, which were initially detected 6 hr after inoculation. These new volatiles are suggested to be synthesized specifically by the action of fungi on fruits as they were not detected from fungi that were grown on agar or bruised fruits. In general, esters, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, acids, and hydrocarbons other than α-farnesene declined in fungi infected fruits.
James P. Mattheis
Washington State industry. Another impact of postharvest 1-MCP use is the potential to eliminate postharvest drench treatments for control of superficial scald and decay. Where the fungicide drench is not used, a renewed emphasis on field decay control
W.R. Miller and R.E. McDonald
Solo-type papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit at the mature green (MG) or one-quarter yellow (QY) stage of maturity were imported through the Port of Miami, Fla., and either irradiated (0.675 kGy) or not irradiated. Fruit condition and quality attributes were determined after ripening to the edible ripe stage at 25 °C before and after storage for 7 days at 10, 12, or 15 °C. The incidence and severity of peel scald was increased by irradiation regardless of storage and ripening regime; however, the degree of severity was dependent on fruit maturity at irradiation. Irradiated QY fruit tended to have the most serious incidence and severity of scald. Mature green fruit ripened at 25 °C without storage had the lowest incidence of fruit with hard areas in the pulp (“lumpy” fruit). The QY fruit generally were second only to irradiated MG fruit stored at 10 °C in incidence of lumpiness. Anthracnose sp. decay and stem-end-rots affected 53% of all fruit. The least decay occurred on fruit ripened at 25 °C without storage, regardless of fruit maturity, and the most decay occurred on QY fruit with or without irradiation. Fruit ripened at 25 °C without storage had more palatable pulp (5.5 N) at the edible ripe stage than did fruit held in storage and then ripened. The effect of fruit maturity or irradiation dose on fruit firmness, however, was dependent on the storage temperature. Mature green fruit ripened at 25 °C lost less weight than did those stored at cold temperatures prior to ripening. We recommend that importers obtain fruit with only a slight break in ground color, and distribute them as rapidly as possible, while maintaining transit/storage temperatures at or above 15 °C with or without exposure to irradiation.
Harold E. Moline and James C. Locke
The antifungal properties of a hydrophobic neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) seed extract (clarified neem oil) were tested against three postharvest apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) pathogens—Botrytis cinerea (pers.) ex Fr. (gray mold), Penicillium expansum Thom. (blue mold rot), and Glomerella cingulata (Ston.) Spauld. & Schrenk. (bitter rot). The antifungal activity of neem seed oil also was compared to that of CaCl2. A 2% aqueous emulsion of the clarified neem seed oil was moderately fungicidal to B. cinerea and G. cingulata in inoculated fruit, but bad little activity against P. expansum. Ethylene production was reduced 80% in fruit dipped in 2% neem seed oil compared to wounded, inoculated controls. Neem seed oil was as effective an antifungal agent as CaCl2, but the effects of the two combined were not additive.
Qiang Zhang, Wenting Dai, Hui Yang, Wenting Jia, Xuefei Ning, and Jixin Li
K.S. Mayberry and T.K. Hartz
Trials were conducted in California to evaluate techniques to extend storage life of netted muskmelons (Cucumis melo L.). The use of polyethylene bags, either as individual melon wraps or as liners for 18-kg commercial cartons, minimized water loss and associated deterioration of the fruit. Individual bags and carton liners were equally effective. A 3-minute dip in 60C water effectively checked surface mold development on wrapped fruits. Lower temperature and/or shorter exposure treatments were less effective. When applied in addition to hot water treatment, imazalil fungicide did not confer significant additional benefit. The combination of polyethylene bags and hot water treatment maintained high quality, marketable fruit for at least 28 days of storage at 3C,