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Anish Malladi and Jacqueline K. Burns

presence of oxygen and epinasty results. *Statistical significance when compared with the control. Additional PGRs or signals may participate in facilitating the epinastic response in tomato. Cytokinin ( Neuman et al., 1990 ) and ABA levels ( Else

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Modeste Kan Kouassi, Jane Kahia, Christophe N’guessan Kouame, Mathias Gnion Tahi, and Edmond Kouablan Koffi

response given to carbohydrate sources, plant growth regulators, or basal media ( Guiltinan and Maximova, 2000 ). The present study was aimed at improving the induction of T. cacao somatic embryogenesis by combining several auxins and cytokinins. To the

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Jane Kahia, Margaret Kirika, Hudson Lubabali, and Sinclair Mantell

the analogous synthetic growth regulators that may be added to the medium ( George, 1993 ). The induction of DSE in C. arabica is strongly associated with the addition of cytokinins to the culture medium, in the absence of auxins ( Almeida and

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Aish Muhammad, Hamid Rashid, Iqbal Hussain, and S.M. Saqlan Naqvi

liquid culture. Subculturing was done after every 4 weeks on the same medium. Black parts in the culture were removed before subculturing. Multiplication was carried out up to the third subculture to evaluate the type of cytokinin, its concentration, and

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Georgia Vlachou, Maria Papafotiou, and Konstantinos F. Bertsouklis

given in Vlachou et al. (2016b) . The cultures were maintained with a number of subcultures on the initiation medium followed by one subculture on Hf-MS medium. Effect of cytokinin type and concentration on shoot multiplication Adult plant- or seedling

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Fang Geng, Renae Moran, Michael Day, William Halteman, and Donglin Zhang

sour cherry, 6 to 8 weeks was optimum for promoting shoot growth, but longer than 8 weeks was detrimental ( Borkowska, 1986 ). Cytokinin in the media is necessary for proliferation, but can inhibit shoot elongation at concentrations that promote rapid

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Yaser Hassan Dewir, Abdulhakim A. Aldubai, Salah El-Hendawy, Abdullah A. Alsadon, Mayada Kadry Seliem, and Yougasphree Naidoo

. erectus explants were significantly influenced by cytokinins type and concentration ( Table 1 ; Fig. 1D and E ). Supplementation of medium with 1.0 and 2.0 mg·L −1 BAP induced the highest number of axillary shoots (3.5 and 4 per explant, respectively

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Choun-Sea Lin, Krishnan Kalpana, Wei-Chin Chang, and Na-Sheng Lin

then transferred to fresh medium with the same concentration. Each experiment was repeated three times. For studying the effects of TDZ and cytokinin, one cluster of shoots having three to five shoots was incubated in 125-mL flasks with 25 mL liquid

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Da Man, Yong-Xia Bao, Lie-Bao Han, and Xunzhong Zhang

closure and conservation of water. Cytokinins exhibit antisenescence properties ( Musgrave, 1994 ). Cytokinins delay the senescence process probably by maintaining the integrity of the tonoplast membrane ( Thimann, 1987 ). Zeatin and its sugar derivatives

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Liping Zhang, Chen Shen, Jipeng Wei, and Wenyan Han

and reducing labor cost ( Kender and Carpenter, 1972 ). Cytokinins are plant hormones that regulate cell division and play central roles in shoot branching ( Brenner and Schmülling, 2012 ). Several studies showed that cytokinins synthesized in the stem