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Craig J. Frey, Xin Zhao, Jeffrey K. Brecht, Dustin M. Huff, and Zachary E. Black

. Marketable yield was determined by grading harvested fruit based on the following categories: marketable, decay, cracking, sunscald, BER, yellow shoulder disorder (YSD), stink bug damage, caterpillar (Lepidoptera) damage, and “other defects” (including small

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Stéphane Roy, William S. Conway, Alley E. Watada, Carl E. Sams, Eric F. Erbe, and William P. Wergin

`Golden Delicious' apples (Malus domestica Borkh) were pressure-infiltrated at harvest with a 4% CaCl2 solution either without prior heat treatment or following 4 days at 38C. Examination of the apple surfaces from both treatments by low-temperature scanning electron microscopy revealed that heat treatment changed the pattern of epicuticular wax. The epicuticular wax of nonheated fruit exhibited numerous deep surface cracks that formed an interconnected network on the fruit surface. The epicuticular wax of heat-treated fruit did not exhibit a similar network of deep cracks. This apparent obstruction or elimination of deep cracks may limit the CaCl2 solutions from entering the fruit. The heated fruit contained significantly less Ca than the fruit that were pressure-infiltrated with CaCl2 solutions but not heated. These results indicate that cracks on the fruit surface may be an important pathway for the penetration of CaCl2 solutions.

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Monica Ozores-Hampton, Philip A. Stansly, and Eugene McAvoy

were recorded and categorized based on the incidence of BES, zipper and catface (Zip/Catf), sunscald and yellow shoulders (SS/YS), off-shape fruit (OS), radial and concentric cracking (CRK), and gray wall as described by Gilreath et al. (2000) . After

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Esmaeil Fallahi, Bahar Fallahi, and Bahman Shafii

visually inspected and percentage of fruits with “stem-end cracking” was recorded. Fruit were then cut equatorially in halves and SDP of equatorial halves of each fruit was recorded by comparison with the SDP standard chart developed for ‘Gala’ apples by

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Wen-hui Li, Jian-rong Feng, Shi-kui Zhang, and Zhang-hu Tang

cracks in giant stone cells were observed. The stone cell area rapidly increased before 60 DAF. However, the stone cell areas decreased at 90 DAF, and apparently additional giant stone cells had cracked. Compared with NP, stone cell cracking was delayed

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Arthur Villordon, Christopher Clark, Don LaBonte, and Nurit Firon

and Sauter (2000) presented evidence that ethylene induced epidermal cell death at the site of AR emergence in rice ( Oryza sativa ), allowing preformed AR initials to emerge through the crack in the epidermis. The role of ethylene-induced cell death

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Ockert P.J. Stander, Karen I. Theron, and Paul J.R. Cronjé

Physical aspects of fruit growth. Theoretical and analysis of distribution of surface growth forces in fruit relation to cracking and splitting Plant Physiol. 68 371 376 Cronjé, P.J.R. Stander, O.P.J. Theron, K.I. 2014 Fruit splitting in citrus Hort. Rev

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Yu Sung, Daniel J. Cantliffe, Russell T. Nagata, and Warley M. Nascimento

lettuce ( Georghiou et al., 1983 ; Psaras et al., 1981 ). Pavlista and Valdovinos (1978) used a scanning electron microscope to observe the disruption of the endosperm of ‘Grand Rapids’ lettuce seeds before germination. Cracks and pits along the walls

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Stephane Roy, William S. Conway, Alley E. Watada, Carl E. Sams, Eric F. Erbe, and William P. Wergin

Structural changes in the cuticle could be partially responsible for the differences in uptake of infiltrated Ca in apple fruit. We examined the relationship between the surface structure of epicuticular wax of `Golden Delicious' apple and Ca uptake by the fruit. Apples were nontreated or pressure infiltrated with distilled water, or with 0.14 or 0.27 mol·L-1 CaCl2 solutions 2 weeks before optimum harvest time, at optimum harvest, or after 2, 4, or 6 months of storage at 0 °C. Examination of the fruit surface with low-temperature scanning electron microscopy revealed that cracks in the epicuticular wax became wider and deeper as storage duration increased. After 6 months of storage, the cracks extended through the cuticle. Uptake of Ca by the infiltrated fruit was greater after 6 months of storage than after shorter storage intervals. These data indicate that as storage duration increased, epicuticular wax cracks became deeper and Ca uptake by the fruit increased.

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Madhurababu Kunta, J.V. da Graça, and Mani Skaria

physical properties: Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), Citrus bent leaf viroid (CBLVd), Hop stunt viroid (HSVd), Citrus dwarfing viroid (CVd-III), and Citrus bark cracking viroid (CVd-IV). Recently, a new citrus viroid species, tentatively named