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Tingting Sun, Tingting Pei, Zhijun Zhang, Mingjun Li, Linlin Huang, Cuiying Li, Xueyan Shi, Minghui Zhan, Xiaoyu Cao, Fengwang Ma, and Changhai Liu

region of China, drought and low P levels are the most challenging abiotic stresses for apple trees ( Hayano-Kanashiro et al., 2009 ). Phosphorus is an important nutrient because it helps drive apple flowering, as well as fruit set, quality, and yield

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Mayashree Chinsamy, Manoj G. Kulkarni, and Johannes Van Staden

. Abiotic stresses such as declining water resources and extreme temperatures can reduce overall plant growth, development, and yield. In the case of water stress, reduced water uptake at initial growth stages will hamper the ability of water distribution at

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James J. Luby and Douglas V. Shaw

summary, a breeder of a horticultural food crop can always expect to deal with the necessity of improving multiple traits. These will likely include traits related to yield and quality as well as tolerance of diseases, pests, and abiotic stresses. Many of

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Craig J. Frey, Xin Zhao, Jeffrey K. Brecht, Dustin M. Huff, and Zachary E. Black

et al., 2008 ). Tomato grafting also has the potential to overcome abiotic stresses (e.g., temperature extremes, drought, flooding, salinity), increase crop vigor, and improve fruit yields ( Barrett et al., 2012 ; Djidonou et al., 2013 ; Guan et al

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Katy M. Rainey and Phillip D. Griffiths

The genetic basis for heat tolerance during reproductive development in snap bean was investigated in a heat-tolerant × heat-sensitive common bean cross. Parental, F1, F2, and backcross generations of a cross between the heat-tolerant snap bean breeding line `Cornell 503' and the heat-sensitive wax bean cultivar Majestic were grown in a high-temperature controlled environment (32 °C day/28 °C night), initiated prior to anthesis and continued through plant senescence. During flowering, individual plants of all generations were visually rated and scored for extent of abscission of reproductive organs. The distribution of abscission scores in segregating generations (F2 and backcrosses) indicated that a high rate of abscission in response to heat stress was controlled by a single recessive gene from `Majestic'. Abscission of reproductive organs is the primary determinant of yield under heat stress in many annual grain legumes; this is the first known report of single gene control of this reaction in common bean or similar legumes. Generation means analysis indicated that genetic variation among generations for pod number under heat stress was best explained by a six-parameter model that includes nonallelic interaction terms, perhaps the result of the hypothetical abscission gene interacting with other genes for pod number in the populations. A simple additive/dominance model accounted for genetic variance for seeds per pod. Dominance [h] and epistatic dominance × dominance [l] genetic parameters for yield components under high temperatures were the largest in magnitude. Results suggest `Cornell 503' can improve heat tolerance in sensitive cultivars, and heat tolerance in common bean may be influenced by major genes.

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Qing Shen, Hua Bian, Hai-yan Wei, Li Liao, Zhi-yong Wang, Xiao-yan Luo, Xi-peng Ding, Zhenbang Chen, and Paul Raymer

habitats with high salinity. It has excellent resistance to abiotic stresses, such as salinity, drought, and low temperature ( Jia et al., 2015a ; Shahba et al., 2014 ; Wu et al., 2018 ; Ye et al., 2010 ). As turfgrass, P. vaginatum has been widely

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Amnon Levi, Alvin M. Simmons, Laura Massey, John Coffey, W. Patrick Wechter, Robert L. Jarret, Yaakov Tadmor, Padma Nimmakayala, and Umesh K. Reddy

could be a useful source of genes for enhancing biotic and abiotic stress resistance in the watermelon cultivars ( Levi et al., 2016 ). Several U.S. PIs of CC have been identified as having resistance to the sweetpotato whitefly [ Bemisia tabaci

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Wenjing Guan and Xin Zhao

Grafting, as an effective approach to controlling soilborne diseases and overcoming abiotic stresses, has been practiced in the production of major cucurbitaceous vegetables for decades in many Asian and European countries ( Lee and Oda, 2003 ; Lee

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Dennis N. Katuuramu, W. Patrick Wechter, Marcellus L. Washington, Matthew Horry, Matthew A. Cutulle, Robert L. Jarret, and Amnon Levi

abiotic stressors. The exclusion of methyl bromide fumigants from the market in accordance with the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer and the U.S. Clean Air Act (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012) led to the exploration

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Andrey Vega-Alfaro, Paul C. Bethke, and James Nienhuis

Grafting is used for an array of vegetables, including tomatoes, cucurbits, and peppers. Grafting can improve agronomic characteristics, abiotic stress resistance, fruit quality, and yield compared with nongrafted plants ( Devi et al., 2020