The gaseous compound 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) is becoming an invaluable tool to abate undesirable ethylene effects in horticultural commodities. In particular, ethylene-related postharvest physiological effects in climacteric fruit, leaf and
Jacqueline K. Burns
Brandon M. Hurr, Donald J. Huber, and James H. Lee
In this study, ripening characteristics, including color change and softening, were determined for tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum `Florida 47') fruit at immature-green through light red stages of development and subsequently treated with 1 μL·L–1 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Special attention was directed at comparing the responses of immature and mature-green fruit. Surface color and whole fruit firmness were measured every other day. 1-MCP delayed or slowed color changes and softening in fruit of every maturity class, with differences between control and treated fruit evident immediately following 1-MCP application for 24 h at 20 °C. Fruit treated with 1-MCP at early maturity stages (immature-green, mature-green, and breaker) exhibited an extended delay in external red pigment accumulation compared with control fruit. Fruit of all maturity classes developed acceptable final hue values (hue angle ≤55°), and the time required to reach these values declined with advancing fruit maturity. Immature-green fruit treated with 1-MCP did not attain an acceptable degree of softening during the specified storage periods examined before deteriorating due to shriveling and pathogen proliferation. 1-MCP-treated mature-green and breaker stage fruit did recover to acceptable firmness (5–10 N) and hue values but exhibited a severely reduced storage life thereafter compared with untreated fruit of equal maturity. Fruit at turning and more advanced stages exhibited reduced rates of softening and color development when treated with 1-MCP, yet they attained firmness and color values within the range of acceptability for commercial use. Fruit treated with 1-MCP at pink and light-red stages of ripening developed normal external color and exhibited significantly extended postharvest life due largely to a significant retention in firmness when compared to control fruit. Based on the studies described for `Florida 47' tomato fruit, 1-MCP would appear to be of little benefit and possibly detrimental if applied to early maturity fruit, most notably greens and breakers, due to irreversible limitations in the capacity of these fruit to soften to acceptable values. In sharp contrast, more advanced stage fruit, particularly pink and light red, responded to 1-MCP with significantly extended shelf-life due to retention of firmness.
Muharrem Ergun, Steven A. Sargent, and Donald J. Huber
Grape tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. `Santa') harvested at light-red (>90% color) and full-red stages were treated with 1 μL·L–1 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) for 24 hours at 20 °C and stored at 20 °C. After 1 day of storage, fruit harvested at light-red stage treated with 1-MCP had a 56% lower respiration rate than untreated fruit. By day 7, respiration rates of the two treatments had converged at about 2 mL·kg–1·h–1. Ethylene production of light-red stage tomatoes treated with 1-MPC was 24% lower than untreated during storage, with rates converging by day 11. For fruit harvested full-red, 1-MCP had similar effects on respiration and ethylene production, although convergence occurred earlier, by day 5. Subsequent tests were conducted only with fruit harvested at full-red stage, since fruit harvested at the light-red stage had lower soluble solids content (4.3%) than fruit harvested at the full-red stage (5.5%). Several combinations of 1-MCP concentrations and exposure times were applied at 20 °C: 1 μL·L–1 for 24 h, 5 μL·L–1 for 6 or 12 h, 25 μL·L–1 for 6 or 12 h, and 50 μL·L–1 for 6 or 12 h; following the respective pretreatment fruits were stored at 20 °C. 1-MCP pretreatment extended marketable life by 1 d, irrespective of pretreatment regime, where untreated and pretreated fruit remained marketable (<15% of fruit soft, decayed and/or shriveled) for 6 and 7 d, respectively. However, 1-MCP did not affect whole fruit firmness, epidermal color, internal color, soluble solids content (6.5%), total titratable acidity (0.64%), or pH (4.3). In a third test simulating commercial handling procedures, full-red harvested tomatoes were treated with 1 μL·L–1 1-MCP for 24 h at either 13 or 20 °C, stored for 4 d at 13 °C, and then transferred to 20 °C. Under these conditions, marketable life for untreated and 1-MCP-treated tomatoes was 7 and 8 d, respectively.
Jinwook Lee, In-Kyu Kang, Jacqueline F. Nock, and Christopher B. Watkins
Application of 1-MCP, an inhibitor of ethylene perception, is widely used by apple industries after harvest to maintain fruit quality attributes, such as fruit firmness, acidity, sweetness, juiciness, and crispiness ( Bai et al., 2005 ; DeEll et al
Robert E. Paull and Gail Uruu
ice pack, if used, during shipping. Mold is sometimes seen among the leaves near the ice pack after it has thawed. This research was undertaken to determine if treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) can minimize leaflet abscission and avoid the
Jiunn-Yan Hou, Wei-Li Lin, Nean Lee, and Yao-Chien Alex Chang
-Methylcyclopropene works by tightly binding to ethylene receptors in plants, thus competing with ethylene for available binding sites. The affinity of 1-MCP for ethylene receptors is 10 times greater than that of ethylene. Therefore, once ethylene receptors are fully
Renae E. Moran
The goal of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) for increasing effectiveness of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) for maintaining firmness and preventing scald in `McIntosh' and `Cortland' apples (Malus ×domestica). AVG and 1-MCP used together maintained `McIntosh' apple firmness more than 1-MCP used alone after 120 or 200 days of controlled-atmosphere (CA) storage. AVG and 1-MCP can be used to maintain firmness of `McIntosh' when internal ethylene concentration (IEC) at harvest is as high as 240 μL·L-1, but CA storage life is limited to 4 months. AVG was not effective at increasing efficacy of 1-MCP on `Cortland' when IEC at harvest was not significantly different between AVG-treated and untreated fruit and IEC was less than 2 μL·L-1. AVG increased efficacy of 1-MCP on `Cortland' when IEC was 36 μL·L-1 in untreated fruit compared to undetectable in AVG treated fruit. 1-MCP prevented scald of `Cortland' in 1 year and reduced it to 5% or less in another year when fruit were stored 120 days. 1-MCP reduced `Cortland' scald to 34% or less after 200 days of storage.
Don C. Elfving, Stephen R. Drake, A. Nathan Reed, and Dwayne B. Visser
1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; SmartFresh; AgroFresh, Spring House, PA) is used widely in the apple industry to control postharvest ripening and quality loss of apples in storage ( Fan et al., 1999 ; Watkins et al., 2000 ). The product is applied
Christopher B. Watkins
The recent registration of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) to inhibit ethylene perception in horticultural products has resulted in an exciting era for postharvest scientists. 1-MCP is being used not only as a tool to increase understanding of the
Margrethe Serek, Edward C. Sisler, and Michael S. Reid
A 6-hour fumigation of flowering Begonia ×elatior hybrida Fotsch. `Najada' and `Rosa', B. ×tuberhybrida Voss. `Non-Stop', Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln. `Tropicana', and Rosa hybrida L. `Victory Parade' plants with 1-MCP, (formerly designated as SIS-X), a gaseous nonreversible ethylene binding inhibitor, strongly inhibited exogenous ethylene effects such as bud and flower drop, leaf abscission, and accelerated flower senescence. The inhibitory effects of 1-MCP increased linearly with concentration, and at 20 nl·liter-1 this compound gave equal protection to that afforded by spraying the plants with a 0.5 STS mm solution. Chemical names used: 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), silver thiosulfate (STS).