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S. A. Mackintosh and R. J. Cooper

Environmental concerns associated with traditional methods of sludge disposal have spurred research exploring alternate avenues of disposal. A potentially significant alternative is the beneficial use of sludge as a turfgrass fertilizer. Studies were initiated during 1991 to compare a commercially available pelletized sludge to urea; 12-4-6; Ringer Lawn Restore; and Milorganite. Fertilizers were evaluated for their effect on turfgrass quality, color, and growth rate. Treatments were applied to a stand composed of 65% Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L. `Baron') and 35% Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. `Manhattan II') in South Deerfield, MA. Urea and 12-4-6 were applied at 49 kg N ha-1. Ringer Lawn Restore and Milorganite were applied at 98 kg N ha-1. Pelletized sludge was applied at 98, 196, 294, and 392 kg N ha-1 with all rates providing acceptable to good turfgrass color throughout the season. Rates of 294 or 392 kg seldom provided quality better than the 196 kg rate. While urea initially produced quality superior to pelletized sludge, all rates of sludge resulted in quality equal to or better than urea beginning one month after application and lasting approximately 11 weeks. Turf receiving similar rates of either pelletized sludge or Milorganite performed similarly. No sludge application rate produced burning or foliar discoloration. Clipping production was directly related to sludge application rate. Pelletized sludge applied at 98 kg N ha-1 resulted in growth comparable to similar applications of Ringer Lawn Restore and Milorganite. In summary, using pelletized sewage sludge as a turfgrass fertilizer promotes healthy turfgrass while creating an alternate avenue of sludge disposal.

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Longyi Yuan, Deying Li, Yang Gao, and Wenjing Xiao

drains and other mechanisms ( Cunningham et al., 2008 ; Godwin et al., 2003 ; Jackson and Jobbagy, 2005 ; Kaushall et al., 2005 ). Salts remaining in soil can be detrimental to landscape plants including turfgrass ( Brod and Preusse, 1980 ). Different

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Jinmin Fu, Jack Fry, and Bingru Huang

irrigation is defined as supplying water in amounts less than actual ET measured under well-watered conditions and has become an increasingly popular conservation technique in turfgrass maintenance ( Feldhake et al., 1984 ; Fry and Butler, 1989 ; Qian and

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Eric M. Lyons, Robert H. Snyder, and Jonathan P. Lynch

Healthy root systems are essential to maintain turfgrass quality in the demanding environment of golf greens. Increased rooting of creeping bentgrass on golf greens can increase drought tolerance ( DaCosta and Huang, 2006 ), nitrogen uptake

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Lusheng Zeng, Jiayang Liu, Robert N. Carrow, Paul L. Raymer, and Qingguo Huang

; Müller and Deurer, 2011 ). Hydrophobic soils are found in many countries on traditional and no-till agricultural soils, pastures, coastal dune sands, shrub lands, parks, turfgrass soils, greenhouse potting media, fire-induced SWR in forestlands, and soils

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Stephen E. McCann and Bingru Huang

Drought is one of the most detrimental abiotic stresses for turfgrass growth across a wide range of geographic locations. Most cool-season grass species are not well adapted to extended periods of drought, particularly during the summer months

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Emily B. Merewitz and Sha Liu

Creeping bentgrass is a cool-season turfgrass species grown on golf course putting greens, fairways, and tees and is prized for its functionality and overall durability ( Turgeon, 2004 ). The species is sensitive to some abiotic and biotic stresses

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Richard L. Parish

Application of granular materials is an important part of most turfgrass maintenance programs, but is not often studied by horticulturists. Agricultural engineers have conducted many research studies over the past 50 years on the theory, testing, and use of granular applicators. Understanding the theory of granular distribution can aid horticulturists and turfgrass professionals in the effective use of spreaders. This article will review relevant engineering studies and interpret some of the results to provide help in using spreaders more effectively. Proper operating mode, proper pattern adjustment, and the use of an appropriate swath width can greatly improve pattern uniformity. For instance, a half-width pattern has been proven more effective at pattern improvement than right-angle patterns, and the detrimental effect of humidity on spreader pattern has been demonstrated.

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Yiwei Jiang, Huifen Liu, and Van Cline

for enhancing turf performance during periods of drought stress and for conserving water. Determining plant and soil water content in response to water deficit conditions is beneficial for turfgrass site-specific irrigation management, particularly for

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Victoria H. Wallace, Candace Bartholomew, and Julie H. Campbell

has proved to be a challenge for school grounds managers. As noted by Miller and Henderson (2012) , a decrease in pesticide use can make it difficult to control weeds, insects, and diseases in turfgrass. To provide guidance to school grounds managers