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Fumiomi Takeda and Penelope Perkins-Veazie

wavelength and quantity through the plastic covering, whereas reduced transmission of ultraviolet light can affect microbial population. If composted organic matter and raw animal manure are incorporated as soil amendments, pathogen contamination and spread

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Mark Gaskell and Richard Smith

to its use are related to: 1) the mining and use of this product may create environmental degradation related to repeated sodium application to soils, 2) the contamination from small amounts of perchlorate that are a natural component of the Chilean

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Shuresh Ghimire, Arnold M. Saxton, Annette L. Wszelaki, Jenny C. Moore, and Carol A. Miles

more annually, whereas in 2012, an estimated 98,300 tons of PE mulch was used in North America ( Liu et al., 2014 ; Markets and Markets, 2012 ). Whereas PE mulch controls weeds, conserves soil moisture, and increases overall crop yield and quality

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Amir M. González-Delgado, Manoj K. Shukla, and Brian Schutte

application rates directly over the soil. Care was taken to contain the spray plumes within the pot and as far as possible to not cause contamination. Indaziflam was applied using an application rate of 50 g a.i./ha on 18 Aug. 2014 and 27 July 2015 when all

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Amir M. González-Delgado and Manoj K. Shukla

(Fisher Scientific Company) to prevent contamination and accidental spill of water samples during the shipping process. No leachate samples were analyzed during 2015 and 2016. Soil samples were collected from depths of 0 to 12 and 12 to 24 cm using a push

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M. Courtney, M. Mcharo, D. La Bonte, and W. Gruneberg

consistent results between runs. Aluminum is an indicator of soil Fe contamination. In all cases, samples that showed aluminum levels above 3 ppm dry weight basis (dwb) were considered to be contaminated and were discarded. A generic threshold of greater

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Tom A. Street, Richard B. Doyle, and Dugald C. Close

Biochar may be an effective management tool for increasing carbon (C) in orchard soils. Biochar is a charcoal-type material manufactured specifically for use as a soil amendment in agriculture. Biochar is created by charring organic matter by

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Shichao Wang, Xinlu Bai, Jianbin Zhou, and Zhujun Chen

to rapid accumulation of nutrient, acidification and salinity of soils and groundwater contamination in South-Eastern China Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst. 83 73 84 Sun, Y. Hu, K. Fan, Z. Wei, Y. Lin, S. Wang, J. 2013 Simulating the fate of nitrogen and

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Marianela Ramirez, Marek J. Krasowski, and Judy A. Loo

difficulties, including high initial contamination of tissue cultures, low rooting success, and failure to establish cultures in the soil ( Barker et al., 1997 ; Simpson, 2001 ; K. Ellis, unpublished data). Contamination can be reduced by resterilizing the

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Joseph C. Fetter, Rebecca N. Brown, and José A. Amador

acids, and chlorophyll ( Brady and Weil, 2002 ). It is mainly provided to turfgrass in the form of fertilizer, although N from mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) and precipitation can also enrich the soil N pool. Nitrogen applied to turfgrass is