The biosolid soil amendment N-Viro Soil (NVS) and a Streptomyces isolate (S 99-60) were tested for effects on root-knot nematode [RKN (Meloidogyne incognita)] egg populations on cantaloupe (Cucumis melo). Application of 3% NVS (dry weight amendment/dry weight soil) in the soil mixture resulted in significant (P ≤ 0.01) suppression of RKN egg numbers on cantaloupe roots compared to all other treatments, including 1% NVS and untreated controls. Ammonia accumulation was higher with the 3% NVS amendment than with any other treatment. Adjustment of soil pH with calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] to the same levels that resulted from NVS amendment did not suppress nematode populations. When cultured in yeast-malt extract broth and particularly in nutrient broth, S 99-60 was capable of producing a compound(s) that reduced RKN egg hatch and activity of second-stage juveniles. However, when this isolate was applied to soil and to seedling roots, no suppression of RKN egg populations was observed on cantaloupe roots. Combining S 99-60 with NVS or Ca(OH)2 did not result in enhanced nematode suppression compared to treatments applied individually. The results indicated that NVS application was effective at suppressing RKN populations through the accumulation of ammonia to levels lethal to the nematode in soil.
Susan L.F. Meyer, Inga A. Zasada, Mario Tenuta, and Daniel P. Roberts
Judy A. Thies and Richard L. Fery
Expression of the N gene, which confers resistance to southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita Kofoid and White) in bell pepper [(Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum (Grossum Group)], is modified at high temperatures (28 °C and 32 °C), but its expression in the heterozygous condition (Nn) has not been documented at moderate or high temperatures. Responses of the near-isogenic bell pepper cultivars, Charleston Belle and Keystone Resistant Giant (differing at the N locus), and the F1 and reciprocal F1 crosses between these cultivars to M. incognita race 3 were determined at 24, 28, and 32 °C in growth chamber experiments. `Keystone Resistant Giant' (nn) was susceptible at 24, 28, and 32 °C. `Charleston Belle' (NN) exhibited high resistance at 24 °C and resistance was partially lost at 28 and 32 °C. However, at 32 °C root gall and egg mass severity indices for `Charleston Belle' were still in the resistant range, and the number of M. incognita eggs per gram fresh root and reproductive index were 97% and 90% less, respectively, than for `Keystone Resistant Giant'. Responses of the F1 and F1 reciprocal hybrid populations to M. incognita were similar to the response of the resistant parent at all temperatures. Root fresh weights and top dry weights indicated that both hybrid populations tolerated M. incognita infections at least as well as `Charleston Belle'. These findings indicate that i) only one of the parental inbred lines needs to be converted to the NN genotype to produce F1 hybrid cultivars with fully functional N-type resistance to M. incognita; and ii) cytoplasmic factors are not involved in expression of N-type resistance and the resistant parental inbred can used to equal advantage as either the paternal or the maternal parent.
Judy A. Thies and Richard L. Fery
Heat stability of the N gene that confers resistance to the southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), was determined at 24, 28, and 32°C. Responses of resistant bell pepper cultivars Charleston Belle and Carolina Wonder (homozygous for the N gene) and their respective susceptible recurrent backcross parents, `Keystone Resistant Giant' and `Yolo Wonder B', to M. incognita were compared. Numbers of eggs/g fresh root, reproductive factor of M. incognita, numbers of second-stage juveniles in soil, egg mass production, and root galling increased (P < 0.05) for all cultivars as temperature increased. The response of the resistant cultivars to temperature increase was less dramatic than the response of the susceptible cultivars. Both `Charleston Belle' and `Carolina Wonder' exhibited a partial loss of resistance at 28 and 32 °C. Reproduction of M. incognita was minimal on the resistant cultivars at 24 °C, but increased at higher temperatures. However, at 32 °C reproduction of M. incognita on the resistant cultivars was only 20% of that on the susceptible cultivars and root gall indices were within the range considered moderately resistant. Unlike the susceptible cultivars, the shoot dry weights of the resistant cultivars were not suppressed at 32 °C. This suggests that `Charleston Belle' and `Carolina Wonder' may be somewhat tolerant to M. incognita at high soil temperatures. Although results indicate a partial loss of resistance occurred in `Charleston Belle' and `Carolina Wonder' under high soil temperatures, resistant cultivars may be a useful component of cropping systems designed to manage M. incognita in hot climates.
Judy A. Thies and Richard L. Fery
Several species of root-knot nematodes [Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood, M. arenaria (Neal) Chitwood, M. javanica (Treub) Chitwood, and M. hapla Chitwood] are major pests of peppers (Capsicum spp.) in the United States and worldwide. Resistance to M. incognita, M. arenaria, and M. javanica has been identified in several Capsicum accessions, but there are few reports of resistance to M. hapla. Therefore, we selected a 10% core (440 accessions) of the 14 available Capsicum spp. in the Capsicum germplasm collection (3,731 accessions) maintained by the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture (USDA), and evaluated this core for resistance to M. hapla in unreplicated greenhouse tests. The 11 best (most resistant) and the 3 worst (most susceptible) accessions identified in these unreplicated tests were re-evaluated in a replicated greenhouse test. Seven of these 11 “best” accessions (PI 357613, PI 357503, PI 439381, PI 297493, PI 430490, PI 267729, and PI 441676) exhibited root gall severity indices <5.0 (1 = no galls; 9 = more than 80% of the root system covered with galls) in the replicated test, and each of these indices was significantly lower than the indices of the “worst” accessions and susceptible controls. Although a gall index <5.0 indicates a moderate level of resistance, more than 3000 M. hapla eggs were extracted per gram of fresh root tissue and the reproductive index was >1.0 for each of these accessions. These observations suggest that the most resistant accessions tested are somewhat susceptible to M. hapla. The results of our evaluation of a core of the USDA Capsicum germplasm collection demonstrates clearly that there is significant genetic variability within the overall collection for M. hapla resistance. Additionally, these results identify portions of the collection where future evaluations for M. hapla resistance should be focused. For example, the origin of the two most promising C. annuum accessions (PI 357613 and PI 357503) in the core was Yugoslavia. Thus, additional accessions from this temperate region of the world should receive priority attention in any effort to identify better sources of resistance in C. annuum to M. hapla.
Kathryn E. Brunson, Sharad C. Phatak, J. Danny Gay, and Donald R. Sumner
Velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana L.) has been used as part of the crop rotation in low-input vegetable production in southern Georgia to help suppress populations of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) for the past 2 years. Over-wintering cover crops of crimson and subterranean clovers were used the low-input plots and rye was the plow-down cover crop in the conventional plots. Tomatoes, peppers, and eggplant were the vegetable crops grown in these production systems. Following the final harvest in 1992, use of nematicides in the low-input plots was discontinued and velvetbean was then planted into the low-input plots and disked in after 90 days. Results from the 1993–94 soil samples taken before and after velvetbean showed a continuing trend of reduced nematode numbers where velvetbean had been, while most conventional plots that had nematicides applied resulted in increases in nematode populations.
Anne M. Gillen and Fredrick A. Bliss
Peach rootstock breeding may be accelerated by utilization of molecular markers linked to the root-knot nematode resistance locus (Mi) to screen segregating populations. A genetic linkage map was constructed using RFLP markers in an F2 population (PMP2) that is segregating for this locus. PMP2 is derived from a controlled cross of the relatively diverse peach rootstocks Harrow Blood (susceptible) and Okinawa (homozygous resistant). Bulked Segregant Analysis was applied using RAPD markers. A single small (227 base pairs) RAPD marker was found to be linked to the dominant resistant allele of Mi at a distance of 10 cM. This new marker joined the Mi locus to the RFLP linkage map and showed that two dominant RFLP markers are located between the RAPD marker and Mi. RFLPS are expensive, time-consuming and RAPD markers are unreliable, and therefore both are unsuitable for screening breeding populations. We attempted to convert the RAPD marker to a more breeder-friendly CAPS marker. The converted CAP marker was dominant. Attempts to convert the CAP marker to a co-dominant marker were not successful. The utility of the CAP marker was tested in an open pollinated F2 population derived from the F1 parent of PMP2 and in several rootstocks. The genetic linkage map was compared to other Prunus maps. The PMP2 linkage group containing the Mi locus can be related to the peach × almond linkage group which contains the phosphoglucomutase Pgm-1 locus.
Jack Pinkerton and Chad E. Finn
The relative susceptibility of 44 genotypes of wild Fragaria L. and commercial cultivars of strawberry Fragaria ×ananassa Duch. to Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood and Pratylenchus penetrans (Cobb) Filipjev & Shuurmans Stekhoven was evaluated in the greenhouse. Eleven genotypes were highly resistant to populations of M. hapla from Washington State and Oregon, with Rf values (initial nematode density/final population density) less than 0.5. However, root growth of most genotypes, including resistant genotypes, was reduced by M. hapla. Thirteen genotypes were ranked more resistant to P. penetrans than F. ×ananassa `Totem', a susceptible cultivar. Root growth of most genotypes was not affected by P. penetrans under these experimental conditions. We conclude that commercial cultivars and wild Fragaria genotypes can provide a readily exploitable source of resistance to M. hapla. Conversely, sources of resistance to P. penetrans were uncommon in the germplasm evaluated. The F. ×ananassa cultivars, which already have commercially important characteristics, appear to be a better source of resistance for both nematode species than the wild, unimproved germplasm.
Brian A. Kahn, John P. Damicone, Kenneth E. Jackson, James E. Motes, and Mark E. Payton
Nine nematicide treatments were evaluated from 1993 through 1995 in field experiments on paprika pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Materials tested included a chitinurea soil amendment and six chemicals: fosthiazate, carbofuran, aldicarb, oxamyl, fenamiphos, and 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D). Stands at harvest were increased relative to the control by chitin-urea, fosthiazate, and 1,3-D, but only fosthiazate increased marketable fruit yield relative to the control. Aldicarb reduced preharvest nematode populations relative to the control, but aldicarb did not result in a significant fruit yield increase. Chitin-urea was the only treatment to produce a net increase in nematode counts from preplant to preharvest in all three years. Although fosthiazate was promising, nematicide treatments were of limited benefit under the conditions of these studies. Chemical names used: (RS)-S-sec-butyl O-ethyl 2-oxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-ylphosphonothioate (fosthiazate); 2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate (carbofuran); 2-methyl-2-(methylthio)propionaldehyde O-(methylcarbamoyl)oxime (aldicarb); methyl N′N′ -dimethyl-N-[(methylcarbamoyl)oxy]-1-thiooxamimidate (oxamyl); ethyl 3-methyl-4-(methylthio)phenyl(1-methylethyl) phosphoramidate (fenamiphos).