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K.E. Maloney, M.P. Pritts, W.F. Wilcox, and M.E. Sorrells

Phytophthora is a severe root rot disease in most raspberry production regions throughout the world. Disease control options are limited to raised bed culture and fungicide applications. Few Phytophthora-resistant varieties are available that have commercial quality. Little is known about how soil amendments (i.e., composts, fertilizers, and limestones) influence Phytophthora control in raspberry. We evaluated the effects of preplant soil modification on the incidence of Phytophthora root rot in red raspberries. The experiment was conducted simultaneously at two sites to differentiate between the nutritional value of the amendments and the disease control value. One site has a known history of Phytophthora and a the second site is assumed to be free of the causal organism. Raspberry plant growth and fruit yield measurements were taken for all treatments. Preplant soil application of Gypsum (CaSo4) and post-plant applications of phosphorous acid sprays (H3PO3) had the greatest fruit yields compared to all other treatments in the Phytophthora-infested site. Gypsum-treated plots had greater cane diameter, cane height, and cane density compared to the control plots on the Phytophthorainfested site. A second experiment was conducted to further investigate the use of gypsum for control of Phytophthora in raspberries. Field soil was collected for use as potting medium from each of the aforementioned sites and pathogen free `Titan' plants were established in the greenhouse. After subsequent floodings, gypsum-treated soils delayed foliar disease symptoms compared to the control plots. At the end of the experiment, the control plants had 100% foliar disease symptoms and gypsum-treated pots had 33% disease symptoms. This study suggests that gypsum could be used in an integrated approach to Phytophthora management in raspberries. Future research should identify minimal effective rates of gypsum, examine other calcium sources, and determine effectiveness in other fruit crops.

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Michael K. Thornton and S. Krishna Mohan

Pathogen populations, disease development and onion yield were compared in solarized, fumigated and non-treated plots during 1992 and 1993. Soil solarization was accomplished by covering plots with clear plastic for six weeks beginning in mid-August, prior to the year of onion production. Solarization was also combined with metham sodium, a plied prior to covering with plastic. Soil temperatures reached a maximum of 48°C at the 10 cm depth in solarized plots, and were consistently 10 to 15°C higher than in non-solarized plots. Disease resistant (Bravo) and susceptible (Valdez) onion cultivars were planted the following spring. Only the solarization + metham sodium treatment significantly controlled pink root and plate rot in 1992. In 1993, all solarization and fumigation treatments controlled pink root. Solarization and fumigation did not significantly increase yield in comparison to the check, except for the solarization + metham sodium treatment in 1992. Bravo exhibited lower disease incidence than Valdez in both years of the study. Bravo produced 32.7 t/ha and 6.2 t/ha higher yield than Valdez in 1992 and 1993, respectively.

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Christopher A. Clark, Washington L. da Silva, Ramón A. Arancibia, Jeff L. Main, Jonathan R. Schultheis, Zvezdana Pesic van-Esbroeck, Chen Jiang, and Joy Smith

progressing from either the proximal or the distal end of the root or both and a more restricted tip rot that appears in storage near the proximal end of the root ( Arancibia et al., 2013 ; Clark et al., 2013a ). Various fungi have been isolated from each

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Emma C. Lookabaugh, Brian Whipker, and Barbara B. Shew

, but if overlooked in production systems, they could harbor pathogen propagules and serve as a source of inoculum for more susceptible plants or subsequent crops. Fig. 1. Differences in pythium root rot disease severity on two cultivars of poinsettia

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Kevin Maloney, Marvin Pritts, Wayne Wilcox, and Mary Jo Kelly

Various soil amendments and cultural practices were examined in both a phytophthora-infested (Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi) (+PFR) and uninfested field (–PFR) planted to `Heritage' red raspberries. Although plants in the +PFR field did not exhibit typical disease symptoms due to unseasonably dry weather, their growth was less than those in the –PFR field. After 2 years, plants in the +PFR site had the highest yields in plots treated with phosphorous acid or amended with gypsum, whereas compost-amended plots had the lowest yields in both +PFR and –PFR sites. A second field study confirmed the positive effect of gypsum on growth and yield of raspberries in an infested site. In a third study, `Titan' raspberries grown under greenhouse conditions in pots containing unamended soil from the infested site, then flooded, exhibited severe disease symptoms; however, pasteurization of the soil, treatment with phosphorous acid and metalaxyl fungicide, or gypsum amendment mostly prevented symptoms from developing. These three studies suggest that a preplant soil amendment containing certain readily available forms of calcium, such as found in gypsum, can help suppress phytophthora root rot and increase survival, growth and yield of raspberries in sites where the pathogen is present.

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J.R. Bohac, P.D. Dukes, A. Jones, J.M. Schalk, H.F. Harrison Jr., S.C. Charleston, and M. G. Hamilton

Carolina Bunch is a sweetpotato cultivar that combines high yield, excellent flavor and appearance with multiple pathogen and pest resistances. It is ideal for home or market gardens, because of its short vine and bunch habit that allow for production of high yields in a limited space. The roots are fusiform with uniform shape and a smooth, bright, light copper skin and dark orange flesh. When baked, the roots have a smooth texture and are sweet, moist and have excellent flavor and appearance. This sweetpotato can be grown virtually without pesticides. It has very high levels of resistances to southern root knot and other species of nematodes, Fusarium wilt, feathery mottle virus, sclerotial blight in plant beds, and Streptomyces soil rot. It has good resistance to many soil insects including several species of wireworm, Diabrotica, Systena, and flea beetles. In the southern US, it yields better than `Jewel' in a growing season of 110-120 days. Foundation roots are available in limited quantities from South Carolina Foundation Seed Association, Inc, 1162 Cherry Hill Rd, Clemson SC 29634-0393.

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J.W. Scott and J.P. Jones

Lycopersicon pennellii accession LA 1277 was crossed to tomato (L. esculentum) and the F1 was backcrossed to tomato. Self-pollinated seed was saved from backcross plants and seedlings derived were inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f.sp. radicus-lycopersici Jarvis and Shoemaker, the causal agent of Fusarium crown and root rot (FCRR). Seed was saved from resistant plants that were self-pollinated and screened until homozygous resistance was verified five generations after the backcross. Three homozygous lines were crossed to Fla. 7547, a tomato breeding line susceptible to FCRR but resistant to Fusarium wilt races 1, 2, and 3. Subsequently, backcrosses were made to each parent and F2 seed were obtained. The three homozygous FCRR-resistant lines were also crossed to Ohio 89-1, which has a dominant gene for FCRR resistance presently being used in breeding programs. F2 seed were obtained from these crosses. These generations were inoculated with the FCRR pathogen. The resistant parents, F1, and backcross to the resistant parents were all healthy. The backcross to the susceptible parent and the F2 segregated healthy to susceptible plants in 1:1 and 3:1 ratios, respectively. Thus, the resistance from LA 1277 was inherited as a single dominant gene. This gene was different than the gene from Ohio 89-1 because susceptible segregants were detected in the F2 generation derived from the two resistant sources.

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Michael D. Meyer and Mary K. Hausbeck

, 2004 ; Hwang and Kim, 1995 ). Phytophthora capsici causes fruit, crown, and root rot as well as foliar blight ( Babadoost, 2004 , 2005 ; Babadoost and Zitter, 2009 ; Hausbeck and Lamour, 2004 ). Phytophthora crown rot is particularly severe

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A. James Downer, Janice Y. Uchida, Donald R. Hodel, and Monica L. Elliott

but has also been observed without the pathogen and in trees with mixed infections of canary island date palm wilt and pink rot disease [ Nalanthamnala vermoeseni (see below)] and or in palms with only pink rot (H. Ohr, personal communication

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Jacqueline Joshua and Margaret T. Mmbaga

et al., 2016 ), and were effective against Macrophomina root rot disease ( Mmbaga et al., 2018b ). The objectives of this study were 1) to identify soilborne pathogens from snap bean roots and rhizosphere soil where fungicides are not used in